A catalogue of Western manuscripts at the Bodleian Libraries and selected Oxford colleges

MS. Buchanan f. 1

Contents

Book of Hours,

mainly in the translation of Geert Grote

Language(s): Dutch

[Item 1 occupies quires I-II]

(fols. 1r-9v)

Calendar

With an entry for every day, each month headed by a note on the length of the calendar month and lunar month in red; written continuously, such that two months occupy three pages; major feasts (in red) include: Pontianus (14 Jan.), Gertrude of Nivelles (17 Mar.), Servatius (13 May), Boniface (5 June), Odulph (12 June), Adalbert (25 June), Lambert (17 Sept.), Remi & Bavo (1 Oct.), Gereon & Victor (10 Oct.), Gummar (11 Oct.), 11,000 Virgins (21 Oct.), Willibrord (7 Nov.), Lebuin, and his translation (12 Nov., 25 June). The calendar has all the saints listed in Saenger, Newberry cat., 114 (Newberry MS. 61).

[Items 2-5 occupy quires III-VIII]

[fol. 10r blank, fol. 10v with a miniature]

(fols. 11r-38r, rubric on fol. 9v)

Hours of the Virgin

Rubric: Hier beghinnen onse vrouwe ghetiden
(pr. N. van Wijk, ed., Het Getijdenboek van Geert Grote: naar het Haagse Handschrift 133 E 21 (Leidsche Drukken en Herdrukken: Kleine Reeks, III: Leiden, 1940), 36-70, without the prologue on p. 36).
(fol. 38r-v)

Prayer to the Guardian Angel

Rubric: Tot dinen heilighen enghel. ghebet
Incipit: Heilighe enghel godes den ic beuolen bin
Explicit: verweerdighen moet mi te gheuen die vader die zoen

with a versicle and the collect:

Incipit: God ouermits wies godliker
Explicit: becuddinghe werde beschermet. ouermits ousen here ihesum christum. Amen

[fol. 39r blank, fol. 39v with a miniature]

(fols. 40r-56r, rubric on fol. 38v)

Hours of Eternal Wisdom

Rubric: Hier beghinnen die ewige wijsheit ghetiden
(pr. ibid., 92-112).
(fol. 56r-v)

Prayers with indulgences:

(fol. 56v, rubric on fol. 56r)
Rubric: Item sixtus die vierde [1471-84] heest ghegheuen alle die in penitencie ... .xim. iaer aflaets. ghebet
Incipit: Wes ghegruet alre heilichste maria moeder godes. coninghinne des hemels
Explicit: ende bidt voer mijn sonden. Amen
(as in Maria Meertens, De godsvrucht in de Nederlanden naar handschriften van gebedenboeken der XVe eeuw I-III, VI [all published] (Leuvense Studieën en Tekstuitgaven: Brussels, 1930-4), VI, 94 item 7.a.);
(fol. 56v)
Rubric: Item soe wie na maeltijtspreket dit ghebet die verdient .xl. daghen aflaets
Incipit: God gheue den leuendighen gracie ende ontfarmherticheit
Explicit: ewighe leuen ende blijscap. Amen

(as in ibid., 96 item 22.a.; with the same rubric as the present manuscript).

[Items 6-8 occupy quires IX-XII]

[fol. 57r blank, fol. 57v with a miniature]

(fols. 58r-75v, rubric on fol. 56v)

Long Hours of the Cross

Rubric: Hier beghinnen die langhe cruus ghetiden
(pr. van Wijk, op. cit., 113-38)

preceded by the prayer:

Incipit: O here ihesu christe des leuendighen godes
(pr. ibid., 113 n. 1).

[fol. 76r blank, fol. 76v with a miniature]

(fols. 77r-90r, rubric on fol. 75v)

Hours of the Holy Ghost

Rubric: Hier beghinnen die heilighe gheest ghetiden
(pr. ibid., 71-86).
(fol. 90r-v)

Two indulgenced devotions to the Name of Christ

(fol. 90r-v)
Rubric: Item soe wie na dat in wat guets gedaen heest leset dit ghebet die verdienst xl. daghen aflaets
Incipit: Die soete naem ons heren ihesu christi
(as in Meertens, op. cit., VI, 94 item 7.d.)
(fol. 90v)
Rubric: Item soe wie wanneer hi die honichuloyname Ihesus ... verdient van paeus iohan xl. daghen aflaets
Incipit: O scepper alre creaturen du biste ontfarmhertich van naturen doer dine grondelose barmherticheit soe verghif mi here mine crancheit. ende ouermits iv heilighe vijf wonden soe verghif mi lieue here al mine sonden. Amen
(fols. 91r-108v, rubric on fol. 90v)

Hours of All Saints

Rubric: Hier beghinnen alle heilighen ghetiden

(cf. R.-A. Parmentier, 'Een vijftiendeeuwsch getijdenboek uit het voormalig bisdom Utrecht (Handschrift van Zuylen)', Annales de la Société d'émulation de Bruges 76 (1934), 95-136, at 108-12).

[fol. 109r blank, fol. 109v with a miniature]

(fols. 110r-116v, rubric on fol. 108v)

The Seven Penitential Psalms:

Rubric: Hier beghinnen die seuen psalmen

(pr. van Wijk, op. cit., 139-45).

(fols. 116v-123v)

Litany and collects

The litany substantially as pr. in ibid., 145-50; among the differences are the inclusion of Valerianus, 'Panciaes', Ivo, Poncianus, Bavo, 'Geliis', Gummar, Alexius, Spes, Barbara, Martha, Justina, and Juliana, and the omission of Pancras and Brice; followed (fols. 122v-123v) by three collects:

Incipit: Wi bidden di here verhore die bede
(pr. ibid., 153)
Incipit: Onutfarme di onser here ontfarme di onser barmliker

(pr. ibid., 153-4 line 4)

Incipit: Verlosse ons vanden dode totten leuen
(pr. ibid., 154 ll.4-25; i.e. the long collect in van Wijk is divided in the present manuscript by a one-line red initial and the rubric 'collect').
(fols. 124r-129v, rubric on fol. 123v)

Hours of the Cross

Rubric: Hier beghinnen die corte cruus ghetiden
(pr. ibid., 87-91); followed (fols. 127v-129v) by a Cross-related prayer and indulgenced devotions:
(fol. 127v)
Rubric: Tot sinte andries
Incipit: Doe sinte andries quam totter stede daer dat cruce bereit was
Explicit: o heilighe cruus ... in die ghehanghen heest

with versicle and the collect:

Incipit: O here wi bidden di seer ynnichlike ende deuotelike
Explicit: lieuer brienden ziclen. Amen
(as in Meertens, op. cit., VI, 95 item 19.b.);
(fol. 128r-v)

a version of the Seven Prayers of St. Gregory

Rubric: Dic dese seuen ghebedekijn leset mit .vij. pater noster ende aue maria al knielende voer die wapenen ons heren die verdient .xlvim. iaer. ende xl. daghen aflaets
Incipit: O here ihesu christe ic aenbede di hanghende anden cruce. ende op dijn hoest draghende
Explicit: wes ghenadich mijn ziele in haer intuaert

(cf. Meertens, op. cit., II, 86-7)

(fol. 128v-129v)

Gospel Pericope from John, followed by two rubrics detailing indulgences of Clement V

Rubric: Item soe wie sinte ians ewangeli Inden beghinne hoert of leset ... die verdient van paeus clemens die vijste een iaer. ende xl. daghen aflaets
Rubric: Item soe wie onser vrouwen lof sanc leset in latijn of in duytsche. dat is Magnificat die verdient elkes daghes .xxxiij. iaer aflaets ende alsoe vele weken

[Items 13-16 occupy quires XVIII-XXII]

[fol. 130r blank, fol. 130v with a miniature]

(fols. 131r-158v, rubric on fol. 129v)

Office of the Dead:

Rubric: Hier beghint die vigeli. Invitatorium
(pr. van Wijk, op. cit., 156-95 n. 10; i.e. beginning on the second page of the printed text, and omitting the end of the last pr. collect); with (fol. 158r-v) an extra collect at the end:
Incipit: Ontfarmhertighe ende almachtighe vader wi bidden ontfarme der zielen dinen
Explicit: alle dinen heilighen van ewen tot ewen sonder eynde Amen Here ghif here die ewighe rust ende dat ewighe licht moet here licht Si moeten rusten in breden Amen
(fols. 158v-162r)

Prayers before communion:

Rubric: Alsmen ten heilighen sacramente gaen willen les dit
(fols. 158v-159v)
Incipit: Wes ghegruet o alre heilichste lichaem ons heren onthouden inden heilighen sacramente
Explicit: lesten een salich wtgans moet ghegheuen werden Amen
(cf. Meertens, op. cit., III, 63-4);
(fols. 159v-160v)
Incipit: O leuende vrucht du suete gheminde paradijs. du suete dropel
Explicit: openbaerliken sien moghen inder ewigher saliche Amen
(cf. Meertens, op. cit., III, 61; VI, 110 item 31.d.)
(fols. 160v-161v)
Incipit: O here der enghelen glorie ic arme sondighe
Explicit: in dien name daer di ontfenc dijn ghebenedide moeder maria Amen
(cf. Meertens, op. cit., III, 51-52);
(fols. 161v-162r)
Incipit: O almachtighe ende ghenadighe god ic onwaerde sondighe mensche
Explicit: moet daer di die enghen louen ende eren Amen
(fols. 162r-v)

Prayer during communion

Rubric: Alstu dat sacrament ontfanges les dit
Incipit: Heer ic en bins niet waerdich dattu comest onder mijn dac
Explicit: alle eertsche minne veronweerdighet
(cf. Meertens, op. cit., VI, 160 item 6.c.).
(fols. 162v-164v)

Prayers after communion

Rubric: Nader ontfanghenisse les dit
(fols. 162v-163r)
Incipit: Danc segghe ic di o almachtighe god dattu mi onwaerde
Explicit: werscappe der ewigher vrouden ende bliiscap Amen
(fol. 163r-v)
Incipit: O here ihesu christe die alle tijt voer onsen sculden wordes gheoffert
(pr. Meertens, op. cit., III, 88)
(fols. 163v-164r)
Incipit: Ic bidde dij lieue ghenadighe here dat dese ontfanghenisse
Explicit: ende leues ende reguiers van ewen tot ewen Amen
(fol. 164r)
Incipit: O here ihesu christe lof si dijnre onsprekeliker minnentliker goedertierenheit
Explicit: ghecomen der heilighen heilicheit Amen
(pr. ibid., 89 ll.18-25);
(fol. 164r-v)
Rubric: Item die dit ghebet leset alsmen dat heilighe sacrament op boert die verdient .ccc. daghen aflaets
Incipit: Wes ghegruet waerachtich lichaem gheboren vander ioncfrouwe marien
(as in Meertens, op. cit., VI, 76 item 18.b.);
(fol. 164v)
Rubric: Tot onse here ghebet
Incipit: Gods ziel heilighe mi. Gods lichaem behoede mi. Gods bloet drinke mi
Explicit: mitten enghelen ewelike. Amen
(cf. Meertens, op. cit., III, 31).

Physical Description

Secundo Folio: (Calendar) d Helena coninghinne
Secundo Folio: (text, fol. 12r) hoert sine stemme
Form: codex
Support: Parchment.
Extent: ii (paper, the first marbled) + 164 + ii (paper, the second marbled).
Dimensions (leaf): 159-60 × 116-8 mm.
Penwork decoration somewhat cropped, the outer borders of the inserted leaves considerably cropped.
Dimensions (ruled): 95-6 × 65-6 mm.
Dimensions (written): 93 × 65 mm.
Foliation: Foliated in modern pencil: i-ii, 1-166.

Collation

Mostly on quires of 8 leaves, with miniatures on inserted single leaves: I (two singletons) (fols. 1-2), II6+1 (6th leaf a half-sheet, fol. 8) (fols. 3-9) | III8+1 (1st leaf inserted, fol. 10) (fols. 10-18), IV-V8 (fols. 19-33), VI8+1 (6th leaf inserted, fol. 39) (fols. 34-42), VII8 (fols. 43-50), VIII6 (fols. 51-56) | IX8+1 (1st leaf inserted, fol. 57) (fols. 57-65), X8 (fols. 66-73), XI8+1 (3rd leaf inserted, fol. 76) (fols. 74-82), XII8 (fols. 83-90) | XIII8 (fols. 91-98), XIV6 (fols. 99-104), XV8+1 (5th inserted, fol. 109) (fols. 105-113), XVI-XVII8 (fols. 114-129) | XVIII8+1 (1st leaf inserted, fol. 130) (fols. 130-138), XIX-XXI8 (fols. 139-162), XXII (two half sheets) (fols. 163-164); CATCHWORDS in the bottom gutter corner of most quires other than those at the end of a major textual unit; no quire/leaf signatures visible.

Layout

22 lines ruled in pale brown ink, between single vertical bounding lines, usually so faint as to be almost invisible; prickings frequently visible in upper and lower margins, also occasionally at the fore-edge, e.g. fol. 162. 21 lines of text per page. The litany of saints written (but not ruled) in two columns.

Hand(s)

Written in gothic bookhand

Decoration

Headings, occasional paraphs and underlinings in red, capitals touched in red; guides for rubrics often visible, e.g. fols. 66r, 67r, 69r, etc.

Six very fine full-page miniatures, each with an arched top, taller than the ruled text area (122-30 mm. high including the arched top, but not the framing), framed by blue and gold lines (pink and gold on fols. 39v, 57v) and a full painted border of stylized foliage, with birds, animals, and grotesques, etc., framed by a double gold fillet (where not cropped), the interstices filled with small gold dots (a similar border is illustrated in colour in the frontispiece to the Sotheby's catalogue referred to below); on single leaves of thicker parchment than the rest, blank on the recto, cropped especially severely at top and bottom, inserted into the manuscript (see also under Provenance):

  • (fol. 10v) Hours of the Virgin. Annunciation, in a vaulted interior; the border with a Wild Man.
  • (fol. 39v) Hours of Eternal Wisdom. The Virgin and Joseph find Christ among the Doctors.
  • (fol. 57v) Long Hours of the Cross. Crucifixion; with the Virgin and John to the left; the Magdalen embracing the Cross; Longinus on horseback, piercing Christ's side; and other soldiers, also mostly on horseback; the border with a Pelican in her Piety.
  • (fol. 76v) Hours of the Holy Spirit. Pentecost; the Apostles seated around the Virgin (Pächt & Alexander, 1, pl. XVII).
  • (fol. 109v) Penitential Psalms. Last Judgement; the Redeemer's head flanked by lilies and a sword; below are the Virgin and John, and figures rising from graves.
  • (fol. 130v) Office of the Dead. Raising of Lazarus; St. Peter unties Lazarus's hands. (The composition is very similar to that in the The Hague, Koninklijk Bibliotheek, 135 E 45, illustrated in the Sotheby's catalogue referred to below, pl. facing p. 56.)

The miniatures have been attributed to the Bezborodko Master(s), who also painted Amsterdam, Bibliotheca Philosophica Hermetica (J.R. Ritman Library) MS. BPH 2 (dated 1491); Antwerp, Museum Plantin-Moretus, MS. 14.7 (dated 1489); Bloomington, Ind., Indiana University, Lilly Library, MS. Ricketts 133 (dated 1491); and The Hague, Koninklijk Bibliotheek, 135 E 45 (dated 1490; this is the eponymous manuscript, named after a former owner, sold at Sotheby's, 11 December 1979, lot 50.)

Seven mostly ten-line initials (nine-line on fols. 110r, 131r) opposite the miniatures, and also at fol. 91r: each composed of a 'puzzle' initial in red and blue pigments, containing, and surrounded by, penwork in red and blue inks, with green and pale yellow washes, usually in all four margins; three-line initials in blue with red penwork and green wash touches at the start of each hour from Lauds to Compline; plain two-line initials alternately in red or blue, at psalms, hymns, lessons, the KL monograms in the calendar, etc.; plain one-line initials alternately in red or blue, at verses and other minor divisions.

Hülsemann, in 'Sets of codicological characteristics', states that the penwork decoration in a group of eight manuscripts, all probably from Enkhuizen or the surrounding area, was probably supplied by two hands (she illustrates each in her figs. 6 and 9).

Note

It is possible that the miniatures were added to the volume at some time after it was first written, but if they did originally belong in the present volume, they are likely to have been included when the book was bound for the first time, and therefore of approximately the same date; other manuscripts with miniatures attributed to the same artist are dated 1489, 1490, 1490, and 1491 (see Broekhuijsen, 'The Bezborodko Masters') suggesting a date in the 1480s or 1490s for the present manuscript. The great difference in the size of the miniatures and the text space, however, combined with the fact that the miniatures are bound in on paper guards of uncertain date, makes the original relationship between the miniatures and text somewhat uncertain.

To complicate matters further, each leaf with a miniature has evidence to suggest that it was not always bound into the volume: most have deposits of paste at the top and bottom of their recto, and most have one or both of two types of pin-hole, either (i) at or very close to the upper edge of the leaf, i.e. before trimming; or (ii) somewhat lower (sometimes within the area of the miniature) and often showing a rust stain. This suggests that the leaves (a) were at some stage pasted to a surface, (b) were at some stage pinned to a surface (presumably wooden), and at some subsequent time, after the edges of the leaves were cropped, (c) were again pinned to a surface with ferrous tacks, before (d) they were eventually re-inserted in the manuscript.

Addendum (12 April 2000). Since the above paragraphs were written, Dr. Anne Korteweg has kindly informed me that the miniatures certainly did not belong in the present manuscript when it was originally written: the manuscript should be dated c. 1470-80, and the miniatures c. 1490.

Binding

Sewn on five cords, with endbands; bound in 18th(?)-century mottled brown leather over pasteboards, the covers undecorated, the spine with five raised bands and dense gilt ornament in all six compartments; marbled endleaves; one green silk bookmark; the edges of the leaves red with some green speckling; the corners and upper joint rather worn.

History

Origin: Netherlandish, Northern, Enkhuizen (?); 15th century, last quarter, after 1471

Provenance and Acquisition

Written at or for Enkhuizen(?), as suggested by the calendar and litany, after 1471 (the date of the election of Pope Sixtus IV, who is mentioned on fol. 56r.) See also the Note under Decoration.

Unidentified, presumably post-medieval, owner(s): the characteristic Enkhuizen feasts in red in the calendar were marked by a group of three black dots arranged in a triangle; for reasons now obscure, in the 18th/19th(?) century the numbers '132', '131', and '134' were written against the entries for Eulalia, Gabinius, and Romanus (13 [recte 12], 19, and 28 Feb., respectively), with a letter 'H'(?) immediately after Romanus's name, and 'I _P RCO'(??) in the lower margin (fol. 2r), perhaps just a pen-trial.

Unidentified 19th-century owner(s): inscribed in pencil 'No 1' towards the upper left corner of fol. i verso; to the left of this a circular label has been removed.

John Buchanan: inscribed in pencil with the 'Descriptive list' number, '15.', in the top left corner of fol. i verso.

Rt. Hon. T. R. Buchanan (1846-1911)

Given to the Bodleian by his widow, Mrs. E. O. Buchanan, in 1939, when it was accessioned as MS. Dutch f. 1; re-referenced as MS. Buchanan f. 1 in 1941.

Record Sources

Adapted from Peter Kidd, Medieval Manuscripts from the Collection of T. R. Buchanan in the Bodleian Library, Oxford (Oxford, 2001)

Digital Images

Digital Bodleian (13 images from 35mm slides)

Bibliography