A catalogue of Western manuscripts at the Bodleian Libraries and selected Oxford colleges

MS. Canon. Liturg. 319

Summary Catalogue no.: 19408

Sacramentary (‘The Reichenau sacramentary’), German (Reichenau), 11th century, first quarter

Physical Description

Two codicological units (parts A, B), together from the outset, the second including a leaf from another sacramentary (part C)
Form: codex
Support: parchment
Extent: viii + ii + 266 + ii + ii, foliated i-viii, 1–270 (42 double, 197 omitted)
Dimensions (leaf): 245 × 175 mm.


Hoffmann (1986, I.336) distinguishes six hands, of which two (A and D) are responsible for the original text:

  • A: fols. 1v-27v14
  • B: fols. 27v16–28v17 (additions)
  • C: fol. 28v18–29r (additions)
  • D: fols. 31v-263v
  • E: fols. 263v9–265v (additions)
  • F: fol. 266r-v
Hands A and D are localised to Reichenau (A is also found in London, British Library, Arundel MS. 390, and D in Munich, BSB, Clm. 23338); B, C, and E are localised to Freising.


Modern red leather binding.


Origin: German, Reichenau, Benedictine abbey (but probably written for ‘export’) ; 11th century, first quarter (after 997, perhaps after 1018)

Provenance and Acquisition

Written after 997 (St Adalbert an original entry in the calendar, 23 August); and either before or after 1018 depending on whether the obit of Henricus Marchio, i.e. Henry I von Babenberg, 23 June, is regarded as original (Kauffmann, Turner) or an addition (Watson).

Localized to Reichenau, first quarter of the eleventh century by Hoffmann on palaeographical grounds. Some liturgical evidence for Reichenau in the calendar, but dedication of Reichenau not present: the ‘dedicatio ecclesiae sanctae Mariae’ is 29 March, and ‘Dedicatio sancti Nicolai’ on 17 December; no Reichenau saints in the sacramentary. Regarded by Kauffmann as written at Reichenau for use at another, unidentified house.

As Freising by the second quarter of the eleventh century, according to Hoffmann's dating and localization of the additions on fols. 27–28v and 263v-265v.

At Aquileia in the later 11th century (by 1077 (?)), as evidenced by added entries in the calendar. These include six patriarchs of Aquileia: John (19 July), of Poppo (28 Sept.), Eberhard (13 Nov.), Gotebold (27 Dec.), Rabinger (18 Feb.), and Sigehard (12 Aug.); entries for the mother (Bilihilt, 23 Oct.) and brother (Friedrich, 29 Aug.) of Sigehard; of the emperors Henry II and Henry III; counts Otto (22 Aug.) and Sirus (21 July); of an abbess Reginlinda (4 Feb., 3 May) and a nun Hadauuich (28 Sept.), probably of S. Maria di Aquileia. Perhaps, therefore, taken to Aquileia by Sigehard, whose consecration (15 June 1068) is in the same hand as many other additions but whose obit (12 August 1077) is a different hand.

Matteo Luigi Canonici, 1727–1805

Giuseppe Canonici, -1807

Purchased by the Bodleian in 1817.

MS. Canon. Liturg. 319 – Part A (fols. 1–28)


Language(s): Latin

(fols. 1v-15r)

Prefatory gradual (‘breviarium antiphonalis missarum’), consisting of a combined temporale and sanctorale, and a series of Alleluias ‘per circulum anni’, ending with those of the common.

(fols. 15v-24r)

Kalendar, entitled ‘martyrologium per circulum anni’, with later additions.

(fol. 24r)

Oratio sancti Ambrosii ante missam, followed by other prayers.

(fols. 24v-27r)

Ordo missae.

(fols. 27v-28v)

Originally blank; additions, 11th century, second quarter, continuing to fol. 29r: ‘prefatio’ and ‘missa sacerdotis propria’.

Physical Description

Form: codex


1–3(8), 4(4) (fols. 25–8)


Ruled in hard point. 22 lines, written space 158 × 100 mm. , the order in two columns, the calendar in one.

MS. Canon. Liturg. 319 – Part B (fols. 29–265)


(fols. 29v-263v)
(fol. 29r)

Originally blank; additions, 11th century, second quarter, continuing from fol. 28v: ‘prefatio’ and ‘missa sacerdotis propria’.

(fols. 29v-36r)

Canon of the Mass.

(fols. 36r-161v)

Masses of the temporale and sanctorale combined, omitting the Sundays after Easter, Ascension and Pentecost, and the season of Advent.

The baptism service on Holy Saturday (fol. 85).

(fols. 161v-164r)

Common of Saints.

(fols. 164r-165r)

Mass ‘in dedicatione ecclesiae’.

(fols. 165r-167r)

Masses for the Sundays after Easter.

(fosl. 167r)

Mass for the Sunday after Ascension.

(fols. 167–175v)

Masses for XXIV Sundays after the Octave of Pentecost.

(fols. 175r-179r)

Masses for Advent.

(fols. 179r-245v)

Votive masses for each day of the week; ‘orationes pro peccatis’ (fol. 181), ‘cotidiane orationes’ (184v), ‘orationes matutinales’ and ‘vespettinales’ (fol. 188v), further votive masses (fol. 192), several of which with epistle, gospel and the opening words of the parts to be sung by the choir; including one ‘pro salute uiuorum uel mortuorum’ and another ‘in monasterio’ (fol. 208v).

(fols. 245v-263v)

Masses for the dead and ‘obsequium circa morientes’ with rubrics (fol. 257).

(fols. 263v-265r)

Additions (including prefaces), eleventh century, second quarter: rubrics included, but initials left unfilled.

Language(s): Latin

Physical Description

Form: codex


5–6(8), 7(6), 8(12), 9(4), 10(12), 11(2) (fols. 78–9), 12(12), 13(4), 14(12), 15(4), 16(12), 17(4), 18(12), 19(4), 20(12), 21(4), 22(12), 23(4), 24(12), 25(4), 26(12), 27(4), 28(12), 29(4), 30(12), 31(6), 32–33(8), 34(8–1+1, one leaf cancelled after fol. 265, fol. 266 (= part C) added, attached to a stub)


Ruled in hard point. 17 lines, written space 158 × 100 mm.

Musical Notation:

Some cues and the first part of the Exultet (fol. 79v) in adiastematic rhythmical neums of St. Gall.


Important miniatures, borders, initials. (Pächt and Alexander i. 25, pl. III)

Introduction (fols. 29v-30r) and initials of the sacramentary in gold.

Decorated initials (fols. 44r, 123v, 126v, 138, 142v, 150r, 155v, 165v, 167r, 192r).

Full-page initials or monograms in red and gold on a purple ground with coloured borders, fols. 30v (Vere dignum monogram), 39r, 94, 111r, 116r.

Full-page miniatures, fols. 31v (Crucifixion), 38v (Nativity), 95v (Resurrection), 110v (Ascension), 115v (Pentecost).


MS. Canon. Liturg. 319 – Part C (fol. 266)


(fol. 266)

Leaf from a sacramentary, pasted on to a stub.

Language(s): Latin

Physical Description

Form: codex
Support: parchment


Origin: Germany; 11th century, first half

Additional Information

Record Sources

Description adapted (March 2019) from Martin Kauffmann, ‘An Ottonian Sacramentary in Oxford’, in Belief and culture in the Middle Ages: studies presented to Henry Mayr-Harting, ed. R. Gameson and H. Leyser (Oxford, 2001), pp. 169–186, esp. pp. 170–1, 185–6. Previously described in the Summary Catalogue.


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Digital Images

Digital Bodleian (full digital facsimile)
Digital Bodleian (28 images from 35mm slides)


Last Substantive Revision

2019-03: Further revisions to clarify physical description and contents and incorporate published descriptions by Hoffmann, Kauffmann and Turner.