A catalogue of Western manuscripts at the Bodleian Libraries and selected Oxford colleges

Christ Church MS. 100

Hours of the Virgin, Use of Rome and prayers; France (?north), s. xv ex.

Contents

Language(s): Latin and French

Book of Hours, Use of Rome
1. Fols 1-12v

The calendar.

In French, written in alternate lines of red and blue with the chief feasts in goldleaf; the inclusion may be suggestive of a northern French origin. There are many saints of with a broad French cult – for instance, Aubin (1 March), Didier (23 May), ‘Feroul’ (Ferréol, 16 June), Bertin (but 16 July not 5 September), ‘Arnouf’ (Arnulf of Metz, 18 July), Marcel (26 July), ‘Philebert’ (20 August but also 24 August, the Feast of St Ouen), ‘Leu’ (Loup of Sens, 1 September), Brice (13 November), Aignan (17 November) – but there are others who may suggest a central northern or north-eastern connexion: ‘Amant’ (Amand, 6 February), ‘Aubert’ (9 February, so bishop of Senlis, d. c. 685), ‘Yves’ (Yves Hélory de Tréguier, 19 May), ‘Liefrois’ (Leufroy, bishop of Evreux, 21 June), ‘Godregrain’ (Godegrand of Séez, 3 September), Magloire (24 October). At the same time, there are some oddities, for instance: ‘Audebert’ (27 February and 10 April, the latter Godobert of Angers?), ‘Faron’ (Faro but at 2 March, as well as 28 October), ‘Robert’ (de la Chaise-Dieu?, but 21 April not 24 April), ‘Gernier’ (21 May), ‘Richier’ (Riquier, but 3 June not 26 April), ‘Aigrien’ (28 July), ‘Maclou’ (7 September).

2. Fols 13-20
Incipit: ||apud deum et deus erat verbum hoc erat in principio apud deum
Incipit: [fol. 17] Obsecro te domina sancta maria mater dei pietate
Explicit: et exaudi me dulcissima uirgo maria mater dei et misericordie amen

Gospel pericopes, opening acephalous through loss of one folio and followed immediately by the popular Prayer to the Virgin.

Fol. 20v: blank.

3. Fols 21-30
Incipit: Egressus est dominus iesus cum dissipuli suis trans torrentem cedron
Explicit: [fol. 29v] erat monumentum posuerunt iesum Deo gratias Per euangelica dicta deleantur nostra delicta
Incipit: Domine exaudi
Incipit: O Adoramus te christe
Incipit: [fol. 30] Deus qui magnus et pedes ac totum corpus
Explicit: in finem per iesu salvator mundi [form ending] Amen

The passion narrative, from John 18-19, followed by three prayers.

4. Fol. 30v-44v
Rubric: Innocencius papa concessit omnibus vere contritis confessis et debite satisfatis sequentem oracionem ob honorem vulneris dextri lateris christi deuote dicentibus quatuor milia annos indulgente
Incipit: Aue uulnus lateris nostri redemptoris ex quo fluxit fluminis fons

A sequence of twelve prayers, opening with RH 24031, and including:

Fol. 32v
Rubric: Deuota contemplacio beate marie [repeats phrase] virginis iuxta crucem
Incipit: Stabat mater dolorosa iuxta crucem lachrimosa
(HE 134-35, RH 19416)
Fol. 36v
Rubric: Protestacio aut oratio in introitu et surrectione secti a quolibet christiano dicenda facta per sanctum vincentium ferrarii et primo te ipsum signa sic dicendo Oratio
Incipit: O domine iesu christe ego quamuis indignus et miser peccator
Fol. 39
Rubric: Les huit vers saint bernard
Incipit: O bone iesu Illumina oculos meos ne unquam obdormiam
(as MS. 94 [9])
Fol. 43
Rubric: Psalmus Contra omnia aduersa
Incipit: Qui habitat in adiutorio altissimi
(Ps. 90)

The bottom half of fol. 44v is blank.

5. Fol. 45-50
Incipit: ||mum dei templum spiritus sancti
Explicit: presentibus et futuris custodias me semper Amen Pater noster Ave maria

Three prayers to the Virgin, starting with ‘O Intemerata’ which is acephalous through loss of a folio presumably removed at some later stage for its illumination. It is followed by ‘O Excellentissima’ (fol. 46v) and ‘Precor te beatissima’ (fol. 48v).

6. Fol. 50v-69v
Rubric: Quicunque sequentem oratiunculam quotidie deuote dixerit sine penitencia et mystico corporis christi non sicut reuesatum fuit beato bernar’
Incipit: Aue ancila sancte trinitatis Aue sponsa [repeats] spiritu(s) sancti
Explicit: sed communis essentia et coequali poten||

A sequence of prayers, ending imperfect in De divinis nominibus (Margerita exorcistarum), the conclusion provided at fol. 78r-v. For the first prayer, see HE 137n, cf. RH 1692. The sequence also includes:

Fol. 56
Rubric: Papa benedictus xxij. ordinis Cisterciensis composuit sequentem orationem et concessit cuilibet dicenti eam infra eleuationem
Incipit: Precor te piissime domine iesu christe propter illam ineffabilem charitatem
(Leroquais 1:111 etc.; cf. Wilmart 378n [no. 12]);
Fol. 58
Rubric: Sequens oratio est scripta in tabula sancti sepulchri et ad suplicationem Philippi regis francie bonifacius papa vj. dedit omnibus eam deuote dicentibus inter eleuationem corporis christi et agnus dei Duo milia annorum de indulgentia
Incipit: Domine iesu christe qui hanc sacratissimam carnem tuam
(HE 72; cf. Wilmart 378n [no. 10])
Fol. 64v
Rubric: Oracio valde bona quidquid iustum petieritis impetrabitis et recitantur in ea nomina dei
Incipit: Deus pater piissime
(G. M. Dreves, ed., Analecta hymnica medii aevi, 55 vols (Leipzig, 1886 -1922), 15, no. 2, ll. 1-236).
7. Fols 70-77v
Rubric: Orationes deuote pro fidelibus defunctis dicende transeuntis per cimiterium
Incipit: Auete omnes anime fideles quarum corpora hic et vbique requiescunt in puluere
Explicit: cum electis tuis eam perferri iubeas in requiem eternam Amen

Nine brief prayers for the dead, Leroquais 2:341. They appear in a single gathering (quire 12) misplaced so it interrupts the last prayer of the previous item.

6bis. Fol. 78r-v
Incipit: ||tia et pietate unica
Explicit: pater ingenito natoque vnigenito spiritu\i/que paraclito Laus honor atque gloria sit virtus et potentia in secula seculorum amen

The end of De divinis nominibus, interrupted by item 7.

Fol. 79: blank but ruled.

8. Fols 79v-137
Incipit: Domine labia mea aperies Et os meum annunciabit laudem tuam
Explicit: portare alleluia Resurrexit sicut dixit alleluia Ora pro nobis deum alleluia

The hours of the Virgin, succeeded by the daily Psalms for Matins in the ‘third office’ after Christmas (fols 125-31v) and by the ‘second office’ for Advent (fols 131v-37).

Fol. 137v: blank.

9. Fols 138-40
Incipit: Deus in adiutorium meum intende Domine ad adiuuandum me festina Gloria patri
Explicit: Sis michi solacium in mortis agone Amen Versus Adoremus Domine ihesu etcetera

The hours of the Passion. A leaf has been roughly removed before fol. 138, without loss of text but perhaps with loss of a full-page illumination that could have been on the verso.

10. Fols 140v-55
Incipit: Domine labia mea aperies Et os meum annunciabit laudem
Explicit: a fetore peccatorum que fecundus precum suarum fauore vt in celum tecum simus Amen

The hours of the Holy Spirit.

Fols 155v-56r: blank.

11. Fols 156v-71
Incipit: Domine ne in furore tuo arguas me neque in ira tua
Explicit: vt indulgentiam quam semper optauerunt pijs supplicacionibus consequantur Per eundem dominum [form ending]

The Penitential Psalms and Litany. The latter includes Blaise under martyrs and Louis IX under doctors.

12. Fols 171v-207v
Incipit: Dilexi quoniam exaudiet dominus vocem orationis mee
Explicit: Versus Requiescant in pace Responsio et in Versus Domine exaudi Responsio Et

The Office of the Dead.

13. Fols 207v-11
Incipit: Inclina domine aurem tuam ad preces nostras quibus misericordiam tuam
Explicit: ut eius meritis et precibus a gehenne incendijs liberemur Per

The suffrages, prayers to the Trinity, Michael, James, Christopher, Sebastian, and Nicholas.

Fol. 211v: blank.

14. Fols 212-28
Rubric: De sancto iohanne euangelista
Incipit: Sancte iohannes euangelista domini qui supra pectus domini in cena recubuisti
Explicit: [fol. 227v] semper extitit et merito castitatis et tue profes | sione virtutis Per dominum

Further suffrages, to John the Evangelist, George, Roche, Antony, Peter, Paul, Stephen, Katherine, Mary Magdalen, Margaret, Barbara, Genevieve, Apollonia, Lucy, and including prayers for the common of saints and common of virgins. Fol. 228 has only a single line, and fol. 228v is blank.

15. Fols 229-34v
Rubric: Oratio deuota de sancta cruce et potest dici in die sancto parasceues quando crux adoratur aut in utroque festo sancte crucis vel etiam quotidie coram ymagine crucifici
Incipit: Salue crux sancta salue crux gloriosa salue viuifica
Explicit: descendat super me et mecum maneat semper Pater noster Aue maria

Cf. ‘Ave crux’, cited from BodL, MS Lyell 30, A. C. de la Mare, Catalogue of the Collection of Medieval Manuscripts bequeathed to the Bodleian Library Oxford by James P. R. Lyell (Oxford, 1971), 368.

16. Fols 234v-36v
Rubric: Orison a notre dame en franc’
Incipit: Glorieuse vierge marie A toy me rends et si te prie . . . [fol. 235v]
Rubric: orison
Incipit: Glorieuse vierge marie mirouer de la trinite mere
Explicit: et repentence faire ma penitance en ceste vie mortelle Amen

Cf. Leroquais 2:311 and Jean Sonet, Répertoire d’incipit de prières en ancien français (Geneva, 1956), no. 675 (misnumbered 28, at 122), citing more than twenty MSS, nearly as many (but still not including this one) added by Pierre Rézeau, Répertoire (Geneva, 1986), 53-54.

17. Fols 237-57v
Incipit: ||dominus tecum Indificiens gaudium dominus tecum Rosa sine spina
Explicit: qui de celo descendisti et vitam mundo contulisti Tu domine es ille panis quem in vltima||

Thirteen surviving further prayers (or sequences of them) to the Virgin, a rather disorganised sequence. After the opening set of prayers, follows:

Fol. 242v-245v
Rubric: Canticum sanctorum ambrosij et augustini transmutatum in laudem gloriose virginis marie
Incipit: | [fol. 243] Te matrem dei laudamus te mariam virginem confitemur
(RH 20156)
Fol. 245v
Rubric: Loroison sequente a este trouuee sur le sepulcre notre dame en la valee de Iosaphas Et a telle vertu que toute personne qui la dira ou fera ¦¦

[part of the heading only, the following leaves lost]

Fol. 246-248
Incipit: ||chrimosa dum peri [sic] debat fili
Explicit: peridebat ante te. Amen
Fol. 248-252v
Rubric: Sensuit cinq belles et deuotes oraisons Comancans per les cinq lettres du nom de notre dames narratiues et declaratiues de cinq merueilleuses doleurs
Rubric: [fol. 249] Oratio prima
Incipit: Mediatrix dei et hominum et fons misericordie indesinenter effundens
(cf. Leroquais 1:280, 2:26, a set of five prayers)
Fol. 252v-253v
Rubric: Sequens oratio dicitur Aurea postquam nulla est dulcior et beate virginj marie acceptior
Rubric: Pulcherrima oratio
Incipit: Aue rosa sine spinis tu quam pater in diuinis
(HE 136, RH 2084)
Fol. 253v-254v
Rubric: Secuntur orationes de septem gaudiis spiritualibus que beata virgo maria nunc habet
Rubric: Oratio.
Incipit: Gaude virgo
Fol. 254v-255
Incipit: Aue maria gratia etc semper dicatur in fine cuilibet. V. Speciosa facta es
Fol. 255r-v
Rubric: Bonifacius papa consedit omnibus sequentem orationem deuote dicentibus Centum dies indulgentiarum
Rubric: Oracio
Incipit: Aue maria alta stirps lilij castitatis Aue profunda viola
(HE 138, RH 1871) [all but the top seven lines of fol. 255v is blank]
Fol. 256r-v
Rubric: Oracio deuotissima dicenda ante ymaginem crucifixi
Incipit: Puro corde et ore confiteor
(Ps-Augustine)
Fol. 256v-257v
Incipit: O memoriale indelebile dominice passionis
Explicit: panis quem in vltima||

Fol. 258: blank but ruled, as is the rear pastedown.

Physical Description

Secundo Folio: KL Feurier
Secundo Folio: apud deum (fol. 13)
Secundo Folio: In illo tempore (fol. 14)
Form: codex
Support: Parchment (both FSOS and HSOS)
Extent: Fols: 259 (numbered fols 1-258, but the rear pastedown, unnumbered, is part of the production)
Dimensions (leaf): 118 × 80 mm.
Dimensions (written): 68 × 40 mm.

Collation

16 26 310 (-1, removed with loss of text; -10 [after fol. 20], a mere stub remaining) | 48 58 (-4 [after fol. 31], cut out with a razor) 68 72 (-2, leaving 1 [fol. 44] loose) 86 910 (-10 [after fol. 59], only a stub remaining) 104 116 128 1310 (-9, -10 [after fol. 85]) 148 (-8 [after fol. 92]) 15-198 206 (-1) [to fol. 137, a production unit] | 218 (-1, -5, a stub remaining, and -8 [after fol. 142]) 226 (-6 [after fol. 147]) 238 [to fol. 155, a production unit] | 2410 (-10 [after fol. 164]) 2510 (-3 [after fol. 166]) 26- 298 306 [to fol. 211, a production unit] | 318 (-2 [after fol. 212]) 322 338 [to fol. 228, a production unit] | 348 358 (-1 [before fol. 237]) 368? (outer two bifolia only present [fol. 244-47] with central bifolia removed) 378 386? (outer two bifolia only present [fol. 256-258 and rear pastedown]). No catchwords or signatures.

Layout

In long lines, 21 / 22 lines to the page.

No signs of pricking; bounded and ruled in red ink.

Hand(s)

Written in French bastard secretary (lettre bâtarde).

Punctuation by occasional point.

Decoration

Headings often in red, but also in text ink, a small cursive, crammed into inadequate spaces left in the copying. All leaves have full borders, with vine and flower designs (some animals and birds) in a variety of colours. At the major divisions, in association with large illuminations, four-line light blue lombards with red and gold grounds, with gold leaf centres and painted flowers. (In the second production unit, many six-line examples introduce individual prayers.) The prayers are divided by two-line champes in gold leaf with red and blue. At versals, one-line gold lombards with alternate red and blue grounds. Simple line-fillers in red, blue, and gold leaf.

At the openings of sections, seven-line illuminations: fol. 40: Jesus and the implements of the Crucifixion; fol. 212: John the evangelist with the poisoned cup; fol. 220v: Stephen holding an open book and palm branch; fol. 221: Laurence with a book and griddle; fol. 222: Anne teaching the Virgin to read.

In addition, at the openings of the Hours, illuminations of about half the page area:

  • Fol. 21: (the Passion narrative): Jesus in Gethsemane
  • Fol. 79v (Matins): the Annunciation
  • Fol. 88 (Lauds): the Visitation (in background, an impressionistic depiction of a classical rotunda)
  • Fol. 97 (Prime): the Nativity
  • Fol. 101v (Tierce): the angel appears to the shepherds
  • Fol. 105v (Sext): the Adoration of the Magi (Balthasar black)
  • Fol. 109v (Nones): the Presentation at the Temple
  • Fol. 113v (Vespers): the flight into Egypt
  • Fol. 120v (Compline): the Coronation of the Virgin
  • Fol. 140v (Matins of the Hours of the Holy Spirit): Pentecost, with the kneeling Virgin in the foreground
  • Fol. 148 (Lauds): Anne and Joachim embracing outside the Golden Gate
  • Fol. 156v (the Penitential Psalms): David kneeling bareheaded before an altar lit by beams coming through a window
  • Fol. 171v (the Office of the Dead): the raising of Lazarus

See AT no. 794 (78) and plate xlix (fol. 120v); they date the illumination s. xvi in. Otto Pächt’s note in the Library’s copy of Kitchin’s catalogue was more definite, identifying the artist as ‘School of Bourdichon’ and the calendar with Paris. He thus identifies the style with the circle around Jean Bourdichon of Tours (?1457-?1521), illuminator at the French royal court, on whom see most recently Thomas Kren and Mark Evans ed., A Masterpiece Reconstructed. The Hours of Louis XII (Los Angeles, 2005), focussing on Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, MS 79.

Binding

Purple velvet with an embroidered leaf design in gold and silver thread over millboards, s. xvii. Sewn on three thongs. Pastedowns old parchment, a ChCh bookplate on the front pastedown. No flyleaves. All leaves gilt-edged, now very worn. The remains of a tab glued to the spine ‘Arch. W. ...’.

History

Origin: France (?north); s. xv ex

Provenance and Acquisition

There is no indication of the volume’s whereabouts before its receipt by Christ Church: ‘from Abp Wake’s Collection’ (in pencil on the bookplate). The manuscript appears in Wake’s autograph schedule (MS 352/8, fol. 2) under octavo and smaller volumes: ‘An antient Rituall in 12o: Illuminated’. As with MSS 93 and 94, the possibility cannot be excluded that Wake came by this manuscript while he was in France, in 1682-85.

Record Sources

Ralph Hanna and David Rundle, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Western Manuscripts, to c. 1600, in Christ Church, Oxford (Oxford, 2017).

Availability

For enquiries relating to this manuscript please contact Christ Church Library.

Digital Images

Digital Bodleian (full digital facsimile)