A catalogue of Western manuscripts at the Bodleian Libraries and selected Oxford colleges

MS. Holkham Gr. 88

Summary Catalogue no.: Not in SC (late accession)

Diktyon no.: 48156

Aristophanes, Eight Comedies (Plutus, Clouds, Frogs, Knights, Acharnians, Wasps, Birds, Peace) with marginal scholia and interlinear notes (possibly the latest of the recensions made by Demetrios Triklinios)

Contents

Language(s): Greek

1. (fols 1r-5v)

Introductory material:

i) fols 1r-2r: Epitome of the nine meters from the handbook of Hephaestion, Ἐκ τοῦ Ἡφαιστίωνος ἐπιτομὴ τῶν ἐννέα μέτρων. Ed. W. J. W. Koster,  Prolegomena de comoedia. Scholia in Acharnenses, Equites, Nubes, Scholia in Aristophanem 1.1A. Groningen, 1975, pp. 51-55;

ii) fol. 2r: Demetrios Triklinios, ⟨Metrical observations⟩, MS. δημητρίου τοῦ τρικλινίου; Ed. Koster,  Prolegomena, pp. 55-56;

iii) fols 2v-3r: tit. Τοῦ αὐτοῦ περὶ σημείων τῆς κοινῆς συλλαβῆς, τῶν ἐντὸς κειμένων τῆς βίβλου. Ed. Koster,  Prolegomena, pp. 57-59;

iv) fols 3r-4r: Platonius, On differences of comedies, tit. ἐκ τῶν πλατωνίου περὶ διαφορᾶς κωμωδιῶν. Ed. Koster,  Prolegomena, pp. 3-6.

v) fol. 4r: Platonius, On differences of chararcters, tit τοῦ αὐτοῦ περὶ διαφορᾶς χαρακτήρων, ed. Koster,  Prolegomena, pp. 6-7;

vi) fols 4r-4v: On comedy, tit. περὶ τῆς κωμωδίας, Ed. Koster, Prolegomena, pp. 13-15;

vi) fols 4v-5r: On comedy, in a different way, tit. ἄλλως περὶ κωμωδίας, Ed. Koster, Prolegomena, pp. 15-16;

vii) fols 5r-5v: Thomas Magister, Life of Aristophanes, Vita Thomana 1, Ed. Koster,  Prolegomena, pp. 146-147, Vita Thomana 2, ed. Koster, Prolegomena, p. 149.

2. (fols 5v-276v)
Aristophanes

Comedies with interlinear glosses and marginal scholia:

i. (fols 5v-36r)
Plutus

a) fol 5v: Hypothesis, ed. M. Chantry, Scholia in Thesmophoriazusas, Ranas, Ecclesiazusas et Plutum, Scholia in Aristophanem 3.4b, Groningen, 1996, p. 1, cf. also ed. N. G. Wilson, Aristophanis Fabulae, vol. ii, Oxford, 2007, pp. 270-271. Chantry and Wilson omit the very last sentence of MS Holkham Gr 88: ἐπιγέγραπται … άριστοφάνους.

b) Dramatis personae, ed. M. Chantry, Scholia in Thesmophoriazusas, Ranas, Ecclesiazusas et Plutum, Scholia in Aristophanem 3.4a, Groningen, 1994, p. 4, as ‘Index personarum’, ed. N. G. Wilson, Aristophanis Fabulae, i, p. 272;

c) fols 6r-36r: Plutus, ed. N. G. Wilson, Aristophanis Fabulae, i, pp. 273-326. MS Holkham Gr. 88 is named L. in Wilson’s edition;

d) fols 6r-45v: Thomas Magistros, marginal scholia, tit. σχόλια τοῦ αὐτοῦ μαγίστρου, ed. M. Chantry, Scholia 3.4b, pp. 2-292.

ii. (fols 36v-71v)
Clouds

a) fol. 36v: Hypothesis, Argumentum 1a, ed. W. J. W. Koster, Prolegomena de comoedia. Scholia in Acharnenses, Equites, Nubes, Scholia in Aristophanem 1.3.2, Groningen, 1974, pp. 8-9;

b) Dramatis personae, ed. W.J.W. Koster, Prolegomena … Scholia 1.3.2, p. 13, cf. ed. N. G. Wilson, Aristophanis Fabulae, i, p. 136;

c) fols 37r-71v: Clouds, ed. N. G. Wilson, Aristophanis Fabulae, i, pp. 137-202;

d) Thomas Magistros and Demetrios Triklinios Scholia, ed. W.J.W. Koster, Prolegomena … Scholia 1.3.2, pp. 14-198.

iii. (fols 72r-106r)
Frogs

a) Thomas Magistros, Hypothesis, ed. M. Chantry, Scholia in Thesmophoriazusas, Ranas, Ecclesiazusas et Plutum, Scholia in Aristophanem 3.1b, Groningen, 2001, p. 1; ‘Hypothesis III’, ed. N. G. Wilson, Aristophanis Fabulae, vol. ii, Oxford, 2007, pp. 130-131;

b) Dramatis personae, cf. ed. M. Chantry, Scholia in Thesmophoriazusas, Ranas, Ecclesiazusas et Plutum, Scholia in Aristophanem 3.1a, Groningen, 1999, p. iv, cf. ed. N. G. Wilson, Aristophanis Fabulae, ii, p. 134;

c) fols 73r-106r: ed. N. G. Wilson, Aristophanis Fabulae, ii, pp. 135-204;

d) Scholia, ed. M. Chantry, Scholia 3.1b, pp. 1-251.

iv. (fols 107r-140r)
Knights

a) Hypotheseis: fols 107r-107v: Argumenta, eds D. M. Jones and N.G. Wilson, Prolegomena de comoedia. Scholia in Acharnenses, Equites, Nubes, Scholia in Aristophanem 1.2. Groningen, 1969, pp. 1-3 (A1, A2, A3, A5. 11, des. ἐνίκα Κρατῖνος δεύτερος), fol. 107v: Aristophanes the Grammarian, eds D. M. Jones and N.G. Wilson, Prolegomena … Scholia 1.2, pp. 3-4;

b) Dramatis personae, eds D. M. Jones and N.G. Wilson, Prolegomena … Scholia, 1.2, p. 4, cf. ed. N. G. Wilson, Aristophanis Fabulae, i, p. 68;

c) fols 108r-140r: Knights, ed. N. G. Wilson, Aristophanis Fabulae, i, pp. 69-128;

d) fols 107v-140r: Scholia, eds D.M. Jones and N.G. Wilson, Prolegomena … Scholia 1.2, 1969, pp. 5-277.

v. (fols 140r-179v)
Acharnians

a) Hypothesis, I, ed. N.G. Wilson, Prolegomena de comoedia. Scholia in Acharnenses, Equites, Nubes, Scholia in Aristophanem 1.1B. Groningen, 1975, pp. 1-2;

b) Dramatis personae, cf. ed. N. G. Wilson, Aristophanis Fabulae, i, p. 6;

c) fols 141r-179v: Acharnians, ed. N. G. Wilson, Aristophanis Fabulae, i, pp. 7-59;

d) fols 140v-179v: Scholia, ed. N.G. Wilson, Prolegomena … Scholia 1.1B. Groningen, 1975, pp. 3-150.

vi. (fols 169v-206r)
Wasps

a) Hypotheseis: Argumentum I-III, ed. W.J.W. Koster, Scholia in Vespas, Pacem, Aves et Lysistratam, Scholia in Aristophanem 2.1. Groningen, 1978, pp. 3-6;

b) Dramatis personae, cf. ed. W.J.W. Koster, Scholia 2.1, p. 7, ed. N. G. Wilson, Aristophanis Fabulae, ii, p. 208;

c) fols 170v-206r: ed. N. G. Wilson, Aristophanis Fabulae, ii, pp. 209-273;

d) Scholia, ed. W. J. W. Koster, Scholia 2.1, pp. 8-238.

vii. (fols 206v-247v)
Birds

a) Hypotheseis, Argumenta A1, A3-A4.3, A5, ed. D. Holwerda, Scholia in Vespas, Pacem, Aves et Lysistratam, Scholia in Aristophanem 2.3. Groningen, 1991, pp. 1-3;

b) Dramatis personae, cf. ed. N. G. Wilson, Aristophanis Fabulae, i, p. 346;

c) ed. N. G. Wilson, Aristophanis Fabulae, i, pp. 347-427;

d) Scholia, D. Holwerda, Scholia 2.3, pp. 6-241.

viii. (fols 248r-276v)
Peace

a) Hypotheseis, Argumenta A3. 1-10 (des. ὁ πόλεμος γίνεται), Α1, Α2, ed. D. Holwerda, Scholia in Vespas, Pacem, Aves et Lysistratam, Scholia in Aristophanem 2.2, Groningen, 1982, pp. 2, 1;

b) Dramatis personae, ed. D. Holwerda, Scholia 2.2, 1982, p. 5; cf. ed. N. G. Wilson, Aristophanis Fabulae, i, p. 282;

c) fols 248v-275v: Peace, des. mut. vers. 1268, ed. N. G. Wilson, Aristophanis Fabulae, i, pp. 283-335 Lines 1228-1268 were added later and ‘have clearly been transcribed from the Aldine edition’ N. G. Wilson, 'The Triclinian Edition Of Aristophanes' The Classical Quarterly, 12(1) (1962) 32–47 (33);

d) Scholia, ed. D. Holwerda, Scholia 2.2, pp. 6-173.

Physical Description

Form: codex
Support: Paper
Extent: iii + 275 leaves (+ iii end leaves foliated as 276-278).
Dimensions (leaf): 260 × 195 mm.

Collation

1 x 2-1 (i), 1 x 2 (iii), 12 x 8 (96), 1 x 10 (106), 15 x 8 (226), 1 x 2-1 (223), 1 x 2-1 (224), 1 x 2 (226), 6 x 7 (274), 1 x 2-1 (275), 1 x 4 (278 and the end-leaf).

Layout

20 lines per page.

Hand(s)

The scribe remains anonymous. Earlier attributions to South Italy seem to be erroneous, and Constantinople seems more likely to be the place of origin. For a discussion, see O. Smith, ‘A note on HH 88 and Marc. Gr. 622’, Maia 27 (1975) 205; id. 'The scribe of the MS Holkham Gr 88 in ‘Tricliniana II’, Classica et mediaevalia, 43, (1992), esp. p. 197 (fn. 27) and 207-209; D. Speranzi, ‘Il copista del Lessico di Esichio (Marc. gr. 622)’, in ed. D. Bianconi, Storia della scrittura e altre storie, Supplemento al Bollettino dei Classici 29, Rome, 2014, pp. 101-146, and M. Muttini, ‘Appunti sulla circolazione del Pluto di Aristofane in età umanistica (I). Gli apografi dei vetustiores e delle recensioni bizantine’, Revue d'Histoire des Textes, 14 (2019) 11. Smith argues that the scribe ‘obviously had access to some highly interesting and presumably very rare MSS’ and that he wrote possibly also the codex unicus of Hesychius Lexicon (MS Marc. gr. 622). He perhaps copied part of MS Benaki 20 (fols 4r-5r, 6r-6v and 189v-427v) as was suggested by A. Tselikas, Δέκα αἰῶνες ἑλληνικῆς γραφῆς (9ος-19ος αἰ.), Μουσεῖο Μπενάκη, Athens 1977, no. 35, pp. 44-45. Smith gives wrong numbers for Tselikas’ ref. and leaves the discussion open while he finally hints at Leo Atrapes (RGK II, 328, RGK III 383), a scribe active in Constantinople. Speranzi however examined further a hypothesis put forward by Fonkič in which Γεώργιος Χρυσοκόκης, RGK III, 127, active also in Constantinople, might be connected with the copyist of MS. Marc. gr. 622, as well as the scribe conventionally known as Anonymus EE or Anonymus 15, and speculated on possible connections with the monastery of St. John Prodromos of Petra in Constantinople as his source of the exemplars of these rare MSS (especially the Hesychius Lexikon and the Triclinian Aristophanes). Our scribe produced copies for clients who had connections with Constantinople, like Giovanni Aurispa, Francesco Filelfo and possibly Guarino da Verona.

Decoration

Additions: Later owners made corrections/additions, see eg fol.43v, 108v, 112r, 113r.

Binding

Holkham binding of brown leather, with Coke family ostrich crest in gilt in the centre of the upper cover; Date: early nineteenth century. Rebound by John Jones of Liverpool (worked for Holkham 1816-1823.

History

Origin: 1st half of the 15th c. (except for fol. 275)

Provenance and Acquisition

The MS possibly was in the hands of Guarino from Verona (1374-1460). See M. Amanda Giannini, ‘Holkham Hall 88: Guarino’s Aristophanes’, Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 12.2 (1971) 287-289. Giannini identifies item 43 of Guarino’s items on the Dupuy list, published by H. Omont in 1892 with Holkham Gr. 88. See H. Omont, ‘Les manuscrits grecs de Guarino de Vérone et la bibliothèque de Ferrare’, Revue des Bibliothèques, II (1892), pp. 78-81, p. 80: ’43. Aristophanis comediae octo cum scholiis, et cum quadam Ephestionis appendice de metris, ubi sunt etiam nonnulla de caractere’.

Catalogue Nrs: front pastedown, fol. i(v) in pencil: Holkham Gr. 88; fol. ii(r): No 269 D3 B5 Olim Holkham Hall, Libr. of the Earl of Leicester, 269

Record Sources

Description by Dimitrios Skrekas (2020), with the support of the Leventis Foundation, the Oxford Centre for Byzantine Research, the Yerolemou Trust and the Michael Marks Charitable Trust

Digital Images

Digital Bodleian (images from 35mm. slides)

Bibliography

Last Substantive Revision

2023-02: Description by Skrekas (2020) encoded.