A catalogue of Western manuscripts at the Bodleian Libraries and selected Oxford colleges

MS. Junius 1

Summary Catalogue no.: 5113

The Orrmulum; s. xii2 (?1170-1185)

Contents

Summary of Contents: The surviving portions of the first volume of The Orrmulum. It contains biblical narratives and homilies. An incomplete list of pericopes, between Orrm's Dedication and Preface, shows that at least 242 biblical narratives, each followed by a homily, were planned. The manuscript is Orrm's autograph, and contains numerous insertions, deletions and revisions in his hand.
Orrm, The Orrmulum
fol. 3r/1-4v/18 (with text on fol. 9r/1-9v/18 marked for insertion at fol. 3v/39; this text was mistakenly printed by Holt-White 1878 as a separate "Preface")
Orrumulum: Preface, including Table of Contents
Incipit: Nu broþerr Walt(err) broþerr min
Explicit: ˥ p(re)dicauit p(er) bienniu(m) dein(de) uenit
Language(s): English and Latin. The table of contents enumerates the Latin pericopes for the individual items.

The prefatory materials constitute one, cohesive text. There is a signe de renvoi (consisting of a circle surrounding a dot) after l. 314 (fol. 4v/b10) which does not correspond to any extant insertion. After item 50 in the table of contents, Scribe C added ‘huc usque .i. uol(umen)’ (5r/29)

fol. 3r/1 Six-line black ‘N’.

fol. 4v/b19 Four-line ‘I’ at line 322.

fol. 10r/a1-b51
Orrumulum: Introductory Text [lls. 1-108]
Incipit: All mannkinn fra þatt Adam wass
Explicit: To ȝarrkenn Cristess weȝȝess
Language(s): English

These lines are not presented as a separate text by White but the major initials that begin this item and the next indicate Orrm considered it a discrete section. There is a signe de renvoi (consisting of a circle bisected by a horizontal line) before l. 89 (fol. 10r/b19) which does not correspond to any extant insertion.

fol. 10r/a1 Eight-line black ‘A’.

fols 10r/b51-22v
Orrumulum: Fit 1 (double homily on Lk 1:5, Lk 1:18) [lls. 109-1797]
Incipit: An preost wass onn Herodess daȝȝ
Explicit: wiþþ preostess||
Language(s): English

Hand C's writing is visible on the stub before fol. 10 (conjoint with fol. 22). There is a cancelled major capital at fol. 10v/b24 (= l. 197), the beginning of the second gospel paraphrase in this double homily. Two bifolia, bearing cols. 13-28, have been lost from the centre of Q2. This text probably amounted to c. 425 septenaries; c. 180 of these survive in Vliet's transcript. There is a signe-de-renvoi on fol. 21v/a11 which may have corresponded to the writing on the stub after fol. 21. The outer two bifolia of Q3 (bearing cols. 45-52, 69-76) have been lost. Cols. 45-52 contained the end of Fit 1 and the beginning of Fit 2, hence the defective explicit of this item. Some 25 septenaries survive in Vliet's transcript.

fol. 10r/b51 Eight-line black ‘A’.

fols 23r-30v
Orrumulum: Fit 3 (probably a double homily on Lk 1:26, Mt 1:18) [lls. 1798-2874]
Incipit: || i clene unnwemednesse
Explicit: all maȝȝdenn þweorrt ut clene
Language(s): English

The outer two bifolia of Quire 3 (bearing cols. 45-52, 69-76) have been lost. Cols. 45-52 contained the end of Fit 1 and the beginning of Fit 2, hence the defective explicit of this item. Some 25 septenaries survive in Vliet's transcription. Cols. 69-76 must have contained the end of Fit 2 and the beginning of Fit 3; some 30 septenaries survive in Vliet's transcription.

fol. 23r/a18 Three-line black capital ‘M’, beginning the exposition of the first pericope of the double homily.

fol. 29r/a1 Two-line black capital ‘I’, beginning the exposition of the second pericope.

fols 31r-32v/a49
Orrumulum: Fits 3 and 4 (single homilies on Lk 1:57, Lk 1:39 or double homily on these two texts) [lls. 2875-3269]
Incipit: || i þatt time
Explicit: ˥ soþfastt lufe 7 troww⟨þe⟩||
Language(s): English

The outer two bifolia of Quire 3 (bearing cols. 45-52, 69-76) have been lost. Cols. 69-76 must have contained the end of Fit 2 and the beginning of Fit 3; some 30 septenaries survive in Vliet's transcription. Matthes (1933, p. 42) treats the homily on Lk 1:26 as a separate item, now completely lost. Since the quire signatures preclude the loss of a whole quire between Quires 3, 4, the lost text can only have occupied cols. 69-76 and any inserted slips, now lost. As a result, it is unlikely this homily could be any longer than c. 200 septenaries. An alternative would be to imagine a double homily, from which both paraphrases and the exposition of the first pericope have been wholly lost.

fols 32v/a49-35v
Orrumulum: Fit 5 (a double homily on Lk 2:1, Lk 2:15) [ll. 3270-4009]
Incipit: An Romanisshe Kaserrking
Explicit: To brukenn heoffness blisse. Am(æn)
Language(s): English

fol. 32v/b49 One-line black capital ‘A’, beginning the homily.

fol. 33r/a54 Three-line black capital ‘A’, beginning the exposition of the second pericope.

fol. 33v/a44 Two-line black capital ‘F’, beginning the exposition. Note that Hand C initially inserted the second pericope here, but realising his error, deleted it.

fols 36r-52v
Orrumulum: Fit 6 (homily on Lk 2:21) [lls. 4010-6393]
Incipit: ||˥ forrþi wass itt upponn hi()
Explicit: 7 wass Rachæl ȝehatenn||
Language(s): English

The fit is imperfect at the beginning due to the loss of a bifolium (cols 97-104) from the centre of Quire 4. Some 25 septentiaries are preserved in Vliet's transcription. Two leaves (cols 137-44) have been lost after fol. 46. One leaf (cols. 157-60) has been lost after fol. 52. Two septentiaries are preserved in Vliet's transcription. This leaf would have contained the end of this homily and the beginning of the next.

fols 53r-63r/a34
Orrumulum: Fit 7 (homily on Mt 2:1) [ll. 6394-7570]
Incipit: ||ledenn he() þe weȝȝe rihht
Explicit: Att ure lifess ende. Amæn
Language(s): English

One leaf (cols. 157-60) has been lost after fol. 52. Two septentiaries are preserved in Vliet's transcription. This leaf would have contained the beginning of this homily and the end of the preceeding item.

fol. 53v/a10 One line black ‘H’, marking beginning of exposition

fols 63r/a35-65v
Orrumulum: Fit 8 (double homily on Lk 2:22, 2:33) [ll.7571-7999]
Incipit: Forrþrihht se time come þærto
Explicit: ˥ forr||
Language(s): English

An unknown number of leaves or slips have been lost between fols 63 and 65. The text on fol. 64 was evidently intended for insertion into whatever text occupied this lacuna. Since there is no gap in the column numeration here, the loss must predate Junius's ownership. Three bifolia have been lost from the centre of Quire 6, containing the end of this item and the beginning of the next.

fol. 63r/a35 Four-line black ‘F’, marking beginning of homily

fol. 63r/b38 Cancelled six-line black ‘A’, before beginning of second pericope

fol. 63v/a44 Two-line black ‘R’, marking beginning of exposition

fols 66r-68r/a18
Orrumulum: Fit 9 (homily on Mt 2:13) [ll. 8000-8346]
Incipit: ||he wollde litell
Explicit: To winnenn Cristess are
Language(s): English

Three bifolia have been lost from the centre of Quire 6, containing the beginning of this item and the end of the preceding homily.

fols 68r/a19-70r/b13
Orrumulum: Fit 10 (homily on Mt 2:19) [ll. 8347-8878]
Incipit: Afft(err) þatt þatt Herode king
Explicit: Beon borrȝhenn þurrh hiss are. Am(æn)
Language(s): English

fol. 68r/a19 Four-line green ‘A’ , marking beginning of homily

fols 70r/b14-72ra
Orrumulum: Fit 11 (homily on Lk 2:42) [ll. 8879-9122]
Incipit: Afft(err) þatt tatt Laferrd Crist
Explicit: Beon borrȝhenn þurrh hiss are. Am(æn)
Language(s): English

A single leaf (cols 221-224) lost between fols 70 and 72

fol. 70r/b24 Six-line black ‘A’, marking beginning of homily

fol. 70r/b51 Three-line black ‘A’

fol. 70v/b1 Two-line black ‘þ’, marking beginning of exposition

fols 72rb-77v/b7
Orrumulum: Fit 12 (double homily on Lk 3:1, Mt 3:1) [ll. 9123-10256]
Incipit: Nu cumeþþ me to tellenn forþ
Explicit: Att ure lifess ende. Amæn;-
Language(s): English

A bifolium (cols 237-44) lost from the centre of Quire 7, between fols 74 and 75.

fol. 72rb/1 Five-line black ‘N’, marking beginning of homily

fol. 72v/a2 Three-line green ‘Þ’‘Þ’, marking beginning of translation of second pericope

fol. 73r/b17 Two-line green ‘Þ’ , marking beginning of exposition

fols 77v/b8-80v/a7
Orrumulum: Fit 13 (homily on Jn 1:19) [ll. 10257-647]
Incipit: Forrþi þatt Sannt Johaness word
Explicit: A butenn ende brukenn. Amæn.
Language(s): English

One leaf (cols 257-60) lost between fols 77 and 79. The text on fol. 78 (ll. 10291-10300) was presumably for insertion into the text on this lost leaf.

fol. 77v/b8 Cancelled four-line green ‘A’, marking beginning of homily

fols 80v/a8-84r/a2
Orrumulum: Fit 14 (homily on Mt 3:13) [ll. 10648-11318]
Incipit: Underr þa daȝhess, alls uss seȝȝþ
Explicit: To brukenn eche blisse. Amæn;-
Language(s): English

One leaf (cols 277-80) lost between fols 83 and 84.

80v/a59 Two-line black ‘Þ’, marking beginning of exposition

fols 84r/a3-89r/b31
Orrumulum: Fit 15 (homily on Mt 4:1) [ll. 11319-12565]
Incipit: Forrþrihht se Jesuss fullhtnedd wass
Explicit: To winnenn eche blisse.
Language(s): English

One leaf (cols 297-300) lost between fols 87 and 88.

fols 89r/b32-89v
Orrumulum: Fit 16 (homily on Jn 1:29) [ll. 12566-12719]
Incipit: Affterr þatt Jesuss fandedd wass
Explicit: Acc all wiþþutenn sinne.||
Language(s): English

At least one leaf (conjugate with fol. 80) lost after fol. 89. The loss was sustained before Junius numbered the columns. Even taking into account the text lost on this missing leaf, the homily is unusually short, perhaps suggesting the loss of one or more singletons after fol. 89.

fol. 89r/b32 Six-line black ‘A’, marking beginning of homily

fol. 89v/a30 Two-line black ‘Þ’, marking beginning of exposition

fols 90r-95r/b9
Orrumulum: Fit 17 (homily on Jn 1:35) [ll. 12720-13999]
Incipit: Þæraffterr onn an oþerr daȝȝ
Explicit: Att ure lifess ende. Amæn;-
Language(s): English

fol. 90r-colA/1 Cancelled six-line black ‘A’, marking beginning of homily

fol. 90r/b45 Two-line black ‘I’, marking beginning of exposition

fols 95r/b10-101r/b19
Orrumulum: Fit 18 (homily on Jn 2:1) [ll. 14000-15537]
Incipit: Uppo þe þridde daȝȝ bilammp
Explicit: Att ure lifess ende. Amæn;-
Language(s): English

fol. 95r/b10 Cancelled seven-line black ‘A’, marking beginning of homily

fol. 95v/a33 Two-line black ‘C’, marking beginning of exposition

fols 101r/b20-105v/a21
Orrumulum: Fit 19 (homily on Jn 2:13) [ll. 15538-16607]
Incipit: Affterr þatt tatt te Laferrd Crist
Explicit: Off all þatt he forrbedeþþ. Amæn;-
Language(s): English

fol. 101r/b20 seven-line green ‘A’, marking beginning of homily

fols 106v/a22-111v/a
Orrumulum: Fit 20 (double homily on Jn 3:1, 3:16) [ll. 16608-17905]
Incipit: An mann amang Judisskenn þed
Explicit: To winnenn Cristess are. Amæn;-||
Language(s): English

fol. 105v/a22 Seven-line black ‘A’, marking beginning of homily

fol. 105v/b51 Four-line black ‘S’, marking beginning of second paraphrase

fol. 110r/b8 Two-line black ‘Þ’, marking beginning of exposition of second pericope

fols 111v/b1-32
Orrumulum: Bridge Passage [ll. 17888-17905]
Incipit: Affterr þe Pasche messedaȝȝ
Explicit: ˥ till þe rihhte læfe.
Language(s): English

Neither Holt-White nor Matthes acknowledge the independence of this section of text, but the ordinatio demarks it distinctly.

fol. 101r/b20 Four-line green ‘A’ , marking beginning of bridge passage

fols 111v/b33-113v
Orrumulum: Fit 21 (double homily on Jn 3:22, Jn 3:34) [ll. 17906-18491]
Incipit: Annd siþþen comm þe Laferrd Crist
Explicit: ˥ lisste till his lare.||
Language(s): English

A bifolium (cols 399-406) is missing from the centre of Quire 10. This would have contained the end of this homily and the beginning of the next.

fol. 111v/b33 Six-line green ‘A’ , marking beginning of homily

fol. 112r/a53 Five-line green ‘H’ and black ‘H’, marking beginning of paraphrase of second pericope

fols 113v-117r/b14
Orrumulum: Fit 22 (homily on Jn 1:1) [ll. 18492-19480]
Incipit: ||Drihhtin unnderrstanndenn
Explicit: Inn all hiss Goddcunndnesse. Amæn;-
Language(s): English

A bifolium (cols 399-406) is missing from the centre of Quire 10. This would have contained the beginning of this homily and the end of the preceding.

fols 117r/b15-117v/a17
Orrumulum: Bridge Passage [ll. 19481-19550]
Incipit: Icc hafe seȝȝd whatt Sannt Johan
Explicit: 7 off Iohan Bapptisste.
Language(s): English

Neither Holt-White nor Matthes acknowledge the independence of this section of text, but the ordinatio demarks it distinctly.

fol. 117r/b15 Eight-line black ‘I’, marking beginning of bridge passage.

117v/a18-"118r/b51"
Orrumulum: Fit 23a (single homily on Jn 4:1) [ll. 19551-19818]
Incipit: Affterr þatt ure Laferrd Crist
Explicit: ȝæn himm ˥ ȝæn his lare.
Language(s): English

Matthes treats this as a double homily, pairing it with the next item, but the structure of the homily and the allusion to a single 'Goddspel' [l. 19611] suggests Orrm envisaged them as separate.

fol. 117v/a18 Four-line black ‘A’, marking beginning of homily.

fol. 117v/a50 Partly-erased five-line black ‘A’ [l. 19585].

fol. 117v/b1 Three-line black ‘N’, marking beginning of paraphrase of exposition

118r/b52-"119v"
Orrumulum: Fit 23b (single homily on Mk 6:17) [ll. 19819-20068]
Incipit: Herode King of Galile
Explicit: þatt ... hu ... himm ...þ...
Language(s): English

Matthes treats this as the second half of a double homily, pairing it with the preceding item, but the structure of the preceding homily and the allusion to a single 'Goddspel' [l. 19611] suggests Orrm envisaged them as separate. Most of fol. "119" has been torn away, leaving the end of the homily imperfect. Matthes suggests Fit 24 (a homily on Jn 4:5) begins between ll. 20019-20036, but the text is so imperfect at this point that it is impossible to be sure. The text printed by Holt-White as ll. 20053-69 is no longer visible in the manuscript.

fol. 118r/b52 Four-line black ‘H’, marking beginning of homily.

Physical Description

Form: codex
Support: Parchment. Each bifolium is formed from a near-complete skin, thus retaining the off-cut that would usually be excised from prime cut. Orrm folded the skin in portrait, rather than the more usual landscape, creating the unusual dimensions of the codex. I am grateful to Erik Kwakkel for discussing this issue with me.
Extent: [i] + ii + 117 + [i], numbered [i], 1-118, [119], [ii]. the front and endleaf are unnumbered modern paper flyleaves. Fols 1, 2 comprise a bifolium bearing thirteenth-century writing and are not necessarily an integral part of the codex. Fols 3-118, [119] constitute the manuscript proper.
Dimensions (leaves): 500 × 200 mm.
Foliation: Foliated in modern pencil. Junius numbered the columns in the seventeenth century. His numeration is key to reconstructing the extent of the codex before it suffered the significant losses detailed below.

Collation

  • fols 3-"119": 1 (7: all singletons) [fols 3-9]
  • 2 (10: +1 before 1 (lost), +1 after 10; 4, 5, 6, 7 lost) [fols 10-22]
  • 3 (8: 1, 2, 7, 8 lost) [fols 23-30]
  • 4 (12: 6, 7 lost) [fols 31-43]
  • 5 (10: +1 before fol. 47 (lost), + 1 after fol. 51; 4, 9 lost)
  • 6 (12: 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 lost) [fols 63-9]
  • 7 (12: 2, 6, 7, 11 lost) [fols 70-79]
  • 8 (12: 4, 9, 12 lost) [fols 80-89]
  • 9 (16) [fols 90-105]
  • 10 (16: 8, 9, 15 lost, 3 and 16 largely torn out) [fols 106-"119"]
I have simplified the quiring here by excluding the many slips Orrm inserted to incorporate his revisions into the text. For details of these, see the quiring diagram. To my knowledge, this is the first physical collation of the manuscript.Quire 2: 'I' fol. 10r base right edge LH column; Quire 4: 'III', fol. 31r base right edge LH column; Quire 5: 'IIII', fol. 44r base right edge LH column; Quire 6: 'V', fol. 63r base right edge LH column; Quire 7: 'VI', fol. 70r base centre RH column; Quire 8: 'VII' base left edge RH column; Quire 9: 'IX' base middle; Quire 10: possible traces of signature base mid LH column. These quire signatures suggest the first quire, containing the prefatory materials, was added as an afterthought.

The manuscript was originally quired mainly in twelves, though it also contains eights, tens and sixteens. Its structure is now extremely complex due to Orrm's insertion of 29 slips of vellum containing revisions (indeed, the manuscript may once have contained further slips, now lost) and the loss of at least thirty-four leaves, mostly since the columns were numbered in the seventeenth century. Since the losses are mostly complete bifolia, it is likely the manuscript was unbound at this time. See the diagram for full details.

Condition

The manuscript is extremely lacunose. The condition of the parchment is variable, with the edges of some leaves crumbling. This has not generally affected the text yet.

Layout

The original leaves are generally in two columns (with the exception of Quire 1, where the leaves were too small). The number of lines per page varies significantly, though there are usually between 50 and 70. The number of lines is generally in proportion to the dimensions of the leaf, which likewise varies significantly. Some leaves were ruled in plummet, others in drypoint. Orrm was unafraid to ignore the rulings (e.g. fol. 68v). Accordingly, the diagram above, which depicts fol. 17, cannot be taken as representative. See diagram.

Hand(s)

The main text and the bulk of the revisions are in Orrm's hand; a second hand (known as Hand C) added the Latin pericope at the beginning of each homily, and made a few English additions (e. g. fols 43r, 62r, 67v).

Thoroughly and repeatedly corrected by Orrm himself. Corrections often made by superposed letters.

English written in an unusual, heavy, cramped English Vernacular minuscule. Ascenders and descenders are short compared to the body of the minims. Word division is not always a priority. One feature of Orrm's unique orthographical system is his use of geminate consonants; these generally indicate the preceding vowel is short, unless that vowel is in an open syllable. To economise the space this system requires, Orrm sometimes stacks the second consonant of a pair on top of the first consonant.

‘a’: may or may not have a head. ‘æ’ retained, though absent from Orrm's Latin. ‘d’: round-backed. Occasional biting of ‘de’. ‘e’: there are occasional examples of e-caudata. ‘g’: an insular form, carefully composed of three strokes; a modified caroline form, finished with a horizontal stroke along the top of the bole, which is used for the stop consonant; and occasionally, the pure Caroline form. ‘h’: Orrm uses the straight-limbed insular form in his English text, a curved-limbed form when writing Latin. ‘H’ can also appear superscript above a ‘g’, indicating a medial guttural sound. ‘i’: double ‘i’ is ticked, single ‘i’ is not. ‘o’ Pointed oval. ‘r’: generally a simplified insular form, though Orrm uses the Caroline form when stacking a geminate consonant, which he also uses when writing Latin. Orrm is also inclined to use a majuscule ‘r’ in ‘Marȝe’. ‘s’ Invariably the tall Caroline form, usually descending very slightly below the line. Orrm also uses the ‘st’ ligature. ‘þ’ used throughout. ‘ð’ a rare form, only used 117 times in total throughout the Orrmulum. ‘ƿ’: used throughout. ‘ascenders’generally wedged ‘descenders’: generally taper left ‘accents’: Accents are used to disambiguate potential confusions. Orrm uses a range of techniques to clarify the structure of the text. Major structural divisions are marked by decorative capitals; paraph marks (for which Orrm has three designs, but the choice seems to be random) indicate further divisions. Orrm also uses the simplex ductus to mark key passages marginally. Individual half-lines usually begin with a capital.

‘barred t’(-terr)‘double common mark of abbreviation’(-mm, -nn)There are one or two isolated examples of syllabic suspension, e. g. ‘c(ri)st’, ‘t(ro)wwenn’. The Latin abbreviations for ‘pro-’ and ‘per-’ are occasionally used in loanwords.

The main mark of punctuation is the ‘punctus’; the ‘punctus elevatus’ is also used. Runovers are routinely marked with a ‘hyphen’. The end of a homily is marked, unusually, with a series of ‘positurae’.

‘st’ ligature in English and Latin; ‘ct’ ligature in Latin, with the tie taking an oblique angle

Thoroughly and repeatedly corrected; Orrm particularly struggled to eliminate ‘eo’ spellings once he had decided he preferred ‘e’.

Hand C added the Gospel pericopes at the beginning of individual homilies, using a small academic hand. He also rewrote several of Orrm's additions more clearly (fols 43r, 67v, 69r, 117v). He may have added ll. 7471-80 (fol. 62r) by his own initiative, though the text is identical to ll. 6494-6504. While he fails to follow Orrm's orthographical conventions exactly, he evidently understood the principles on which they rested. Parkes 1991 suggests he may have been familiar with writing documents.

‘a’: generally with a pronounced headstroke that is the same length as the bole, though the headless form is also frequently found. The headless form is also used superscript as a syllabic suspension, a feature Parkes suggests dies out in the 1180s.‘d’: round-backed; lobe composed of broken strokes. ‘e’: tongue generally protrudes, a feature exacerbated when the letter is word-final. ‘f’, like ‘s’ descends slightly below the line (features, according to Parkes, extremely rare in bookhand).‘g’: Caroline, composed of a lobe and tail which initially descends in front of the lobe, before turning back perpendicularly to the left. This stroke is often extended. In English, where the tail of Caroline ‘g’ is typically closed, he also uses insular ‘g’, as well as Orrm's hybrid form.‘h’: in Latin, the second limb curves inward and is often extended beneath the line; in English, Hand C maintains the insular form. ‘i’: wedged at top, at base sometimes finished with an oblique rightward serif, sometimes unfinished. Word final ‘i ’ is sometimes long.‘m’: generally has rounded arches. Such arches became pointed in the 1170s according to Parkes.‘o’ Pointed oval. ‘r’: generally Caroline in Latin; insular in English. ‘s’ Descends slightly below the line.‘t’: The stem sometimes bisects headstroke. The stem is often extended upwards to the right.‘þ’ is used to the exclusion of ‘ð’ in English. The crossbar of the abbreviation ‘þ(att)’ turns up at the right.‘ƿ’: used in English; often very similar to ‘p’. ‘ascenders’ sometimes wedged, but often unfinished ‘descenders’: generally straight with a very slight taper to the left. This taper became more pronounced in documentary hands of the 1160s and 1170s.

‘˥’ sits on the line; the descender is finished with a serif to the right. The capitular form is barred. In English, uses syllabic suspension in ‘c(ri)stes’ (67v).As one might expect, he uses the full compendium of Latin abbreviations in the pericopes.

The main mark of punctuation is the ‘punctus’. In English, the ‘punctus elevatus’ is also used.

‘st’ ligature in English and Latin.

Decoration

Multiple-line unadorned monochrome initials open most homilies. These are mostly in black, but there are several in green.

Additions: There are no items added after ca. 1220.

Binding

Bound in modern pulp boards. The binding probably postdates the significant losses the manuscript suffered after Junius had numbered the columns.

Sewn on six thongs, spine uncovered.

Paper pastedowns at front and back.

Accompanying Material

Fols 1, 2 form a bifolium, probably unconnected with the manuscript proper despite their comparable dimensions. Fol. 2r bears a thirteenth-century 'alphabeticum anglicum' in roman script and runes (inventoried Derolez 1954, [lvii-]viii, n3), written parallel to the spine of the book, from the foot of the page to the top.

History

Origin: c. 1170-1185 ; English, Lincolnshire (?), Bourne Abbey (?)

Provenance and Acquisition

Malcolm Parkes has suggested Orrm wrote the text at the Augustinian Abbey of Bourne in Lincolnshire. His evidence comes from the list of capitula, which indicates that the latter stages of Orrm's work focussed heavily on the deeds of SS. Peter and Paul. Bourne was dedicated to these two saints, and the dialect evidence supports placing the work in this part of Lincolnshire. Parkes dates Hand C's addition of the Latin pericopes early in the final quarter of the twelfth century. Nils-Jennart Johannesson has suggested that it would have taken Orrm four or five years to copy out the five volumes which it seems constituted the full text. See Parkes 1991, Johannesson 1997.

Acquired in 1659 by Jan van Vliet (fol. 2); lot 107 in the sale of his library, 1666.

Probably purchased at that sale by Franciscus Junius.

Entered the Bodleian with Junius's manuscripts in 1678.

Record Sources

Description by Mark Faulkner (July 2010) for The Production and Use of English Manuscripts: 1060 to 1220, reused by permission.

Previously described in the Summary Catalogue.

Availability

To ensure its availability to future readers, access to this item is restricted, and readers are asked to work from reproductions and published descriptions as far as possible. To apply to see the original, please send a message to specialcollections.enquiries@bodleian.ox.ac.uk, outlining the subject of your research, the importance of this item to that research, and the resources you have already consulted.

Digital Images

Digital Bodleian (full digital facsimile)
Digital Bodleian (2 images from 35mm slides)

Bibliography

    Online resources:

    Reproductions:

    Burchfield, L. W., 'A Source of Scribal Error in Early Middle English', Medium Ævum, 22 (1953), 8-17, after p. 10, fol. 35v (part)
    Holm, Sigurd, Corrections and Additions in the Ormulum Manuscript (Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1922), after p. 117, fols 75v (part), 71r, 62r
    Napier, Arthur Sampson, ed., History of the Holy Rood-Tree : a twelfth-century version of the Cross-legend with notes on the orthography of the Orumulum (with a facsimile) and a Middle English Compassio Mariae, EETS, OS 103 (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner, 1894), fol. 65r (part)
    Roberts, Jane, Guide to Scripts Used in English Writings up to 1500 (London: British Library, 2005), nos. 27a, b, fols 72r, 71r, 71v
    Skeat, W. W., Twelve Facsimiles of Old English MSS (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1892), pl. IV, fol. 20r (part)
    Thompson, E. M. and E.A. Bond (ed.s), The Palaeographical Society: Facsimiles of Miniatures and Inscriptions. (London, 1873-1883), pl. 133, fol. 53r (part)
    Turville-Petre, Joan, 'Studies in the Ormulum MS', Journal of English and Germanic Philology, 46 (1947), 1-27, before p. 1, fol. 30r (part)
    Wright, C. E, English Vernacular Hands from the Twelfth to the Fifteenth Centuries (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1960), no. 2 [fol. 3r (part)]

    Other bibliography:

    Burchfield, L. W., 'A Source of Scribal Error in Early Middle English', Medium Ævum, 22 (1953), 8-17
    ---, 'The Language and Orthography of the Ormulum MS', Transactions of the Philological Society, (1956), 56-87
    Derolez, R., Runica Manuscripta: The English Tradition, Rijksuniversiteit te Gent (Brugge: De Tempel, 1954)
    Holm, Sigurd, Corrections and Additions in the Ormulum Manuscript (Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1922)
    Holt, Robert, ed., The Ormulum, with the Notes and Glossary of Dr. R. M. White, 2 vols (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1878)
    Johannesson, Nils-Lennart, 'Overwriting, Deletion and Erasure: Exploring the Changes in the Ormulum Manuscript', Jestin', 2.2 (1997), 21-29
    Ker, N. R., Catalogue of Manuscripts Containing Anglo-Saxon (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1957; repr. 1990)
    ---, 'Unpublished Parts of the Ormulum Printed from MS. Lambeth 783', Medium Ævum, 9 (1940), 1-22
    Kwakkel, Erik, 'Cost Reduction Before Paper: Discarded Parchments as Writing Support in English Manuscript Culture', English Manuscript Studies: 1100-1700, (forthcoming)
    Laing, Margaret, Catalogue of Sources for a Linguistic Atlas of Early Medieval English (Woodbridge: Brewer, 1993)
    Matthes, Heinrich C. , Die Einheitlichkeit des Orrmulum: Studien zur Textkritik, zu den Quellen und zur sprachlichen Form von Orrmins Evangelienbuch (Heidelberg: C. Winter, 1933)
    Napier, Arthur Sampson, ed., History of the Holy Rood-Tree : a twelfth-century version of the Cross-legend with notes on the orthography of the Orumulum (with a facsimile) and a Middle English Compassio Mariae, EETS, OS 103 (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner, 1894)
    Parkes, M. B., 'On the presumed date and possible origin of the Manuscript of the Ormulum: Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Junius 1', in Scribes, scripts and readers: studies in the communication, presentation and dissemination of medieval texts (London: Hambledon, 1991), pp. 187-200
    Roberts, Jane, Guide to Scripts Used in English Writings up to 1500 (London: British Library, 2005)
    Scragg, D. G., A History of English Spelling (Manchester, 1974)
    Skeat, W. W., Twelve Facsimiles of Old English MSS (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1892)
    Thompson, E. M. and E.A. Bond (ed.s), The Palaeographical Society: Facsimiles of Miniatures and Inscriptions. (London, 1873-1883)
    Turville-Petre, Joan, 'Studies in the Ormulum MS', Journal of English and Germanic Philology, 46 (1947), 1-27
    Wright, C. E, English Vernacular Hands from the Twelfth to the Fifteenth Centuries (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1960)