A catalogue of Western manuscripts at the Bodleian Libraries and selected Oxford colleges

MS. Junius 121

Summary Catalogue no.: 5232

Ecclesiastical Institutes, Homilies; England (Worcester), s. xi 2, glossed s. xiii 1


Summary of Contents: A book for episcopal use, including canonical, penitential, and homiletic texts, many associated with Archbishop Wulfstan (d. 1023) and his commonplace book tradition (see Bateson 1895; Sauer 2000). The manuscript was produced in Worcester a generation or so after Archbishop Wulfstan's death, during the episcopate of St Wulfstan (1062–95), and compiled c. 1060–72, with Hatton 113 and Hatton 114 (Franzen 1998, p. 55–56). Glosses added by the so-called Tremulous Hand of Worcester in the thirteenth century.
A. (fols. iii recto - 110v)

Ecclesiastical institutes, etc.

A table of contents (fols. 5–8) preceded by canon law extracts (fols. 1v-4v), precedes five numbered sections: (1) I-XLIII (fols 9r-69v); (2) I-XV (fols 69v-74r); (3) I-XXX (fols 74r-80v); (4) I-XVI (fols 80v-84v); (5) I-XXX (fols 84v-110v). The last four sections (2)-(5) are referred to as Books 1–4; the first three books (2)-(4) (fols. 69v-84v) correspond to the first three books of the 'Penitential of Pseudo-Egbert', while the fourth is miscellaneous. The endleaves (fols. iii recto - vi recto) contain additions of the 13th century. The numbering of items follows Ker.

Additions on the endleaves, thirteenth century

Fols iii r-v
⟨Latin-Old English Glossary⟩

Tremulous Hand

fol. iii r: nine words in four columns; fol. iii v: two word pairs (otherwise blank) All in the Tremulous Hand. (For later notes on fols. ii verso and iii recto see Provenance).

Language(s): Latin and English
Fol. v r
⟨Latin-Old English Glossary⟩
Language(s): English; Latin

One word pair in the Tremulous Hand (pencil)

40. Fol. vi r
Incipit: vi r/1 -vi r/1 Robertus rex francor(um) victime pascali ...
Explicit: vi r/13-vi r/14 Robert(us) eboracensis: exultemus i hac die festiva; Quidam canonicus toruacensis.ʹ historiam de trinitate.
Language(s): Latin

s. xii/xiii (Franzen 1998, p. 59)

A list of writers of hymns, and hymns ascribed to them. Reproduced in Crawford 1928, p. 5.

41. Fol. vi r
⟨Nicene Creed (early Middle English) ⟩ (Cameron B12.3.3)
Incipit: vi r/15 : Ic ileue on enne god fæder almihti
Language(s): English

s. xiii

Tremulous Hand

Fol. vi r

In top margin, s. xiii, 'recti diligunt te suete lefdi seinte marie'; immediately below it, in the Tremulous Hand, a string of Latin synonyms.

Fols. vi verso, vii recto-verso blank.

Language(s): Latin and English

Table of contents, preceded by canon law extracts

Fol. 1r/1–2
Incipit: || Benedicamus uos regnanti desup(er) gratias ^domino^ | | Deo per secula pueri reddite gratias.
Language(s): Latin

1080–1100 (Franzen 1998, p. 59)

On first page after composition of manuscript [not main hand]

This page is blank apart from two neumed lines, and ‘writ ðus’ above this.

Frere 1894, p. 144
36.i. Fol. 1v/1–5
Rubric: 1v/marginal Can(on) Affr(icanus) (also Canon Affricanus, cut away on left: marginal, later).
Incipit: 1v/1 Clericus non debet armis uti
Explicit: 1v/5 tamen non priuetur
Language(s): Latin

Hand 2

  • CCCC 265, p. 32;
  • Rouen, Bibliotheque municipale 1382 (U.109), 189r;
  • Oxford, Bodleian Library, Barlow 37, 5r;
  • cf. a version (apparently with additions) in CCCC 190 , pp. 136–7 and Nero A. i , fol. 152r-v.
Cross and Hamer 1999, pp. 98 (no. 75) and 167 (no. 159)
Franzen 1998, art. 2
36.ii. Fol. 1v/5–23
Incipit: Si quis clericus homicidiu(m) fecerit
Language(s): Latin

Hand 2

See also Cross and Hamer 1999, pp. 108 (no. 102) and 171 (no. 167).

Thorpe 1840, pp. 126/33–127/7
Franzen 1998, art. 3
36.iii. Fol. 2r/1–6
Incipit: 2r/1 Si clericus homicidium fecerit
Explicit: nolens. i. annum.
Language(s): Latin

Hand 2

Franzen 1998, art. 4
36.iv. Fols 2r/7–2v/10
Incipit: 2r/7 Pro capitalib(us) criminib(us)
Language(s): Latin

Hand 2

Franzen 1998, art. 5
Thorpe 1840, pp. 3/28–4/3
37. Fols 2v/10–3r/10
Incipit: 2v/11 : Q(uo)d nulli liceat duobus ep(iscop) atibus p(rae)sidere.
Explicit: 3r/10 Quod calici non sint cerei

Canon of the Council of Winchester, 1070

Language(s): Latin

Hand 3; after 1070; Whitelock et al. (1981), II.575–6.

Franzen 1998, art. 6
Spelman 1664, ii.12
38. Fols 3r/11–4r/10
Incipit: 3r/11 Haec (est) pęnitentie institutio
Language(s): Latin

Hand 4. The bowls of P, Q, S are coloured in green. Whitelock et al. (1981), II.583–4.

Franzen 1998, art. 7
Spelman 1664, ii.12–13
39. Fols 4r/11–4v/18
Decrees of the Council of Winchester, AD 1076
Incipit: 4r/11 Anno ab incarnatione d(omi)ni mill(esimo). lxx.vi.
Explicit: 4v/17–18x Supplan|tationes uero ęcclesiar(um) omnib(us) modis in(ter)dicim(us) . FINIT.
Language(s): Latin

Hand 5; after 1076; Whitelock et al. (1981), II.619–29

Franzen 1998, art. 8
Parker 1572, p. 98
Mansi 1775, p. 462
Fols 5r/1–8r/13
⟨Table of contents⟩
Incipit: 5r/3 I Be heofonlicu(m) cynincge
Explicit: 8r/13 Be preoste sinoðe
Language(s): Latin and English

Hand 1

Fol. 7v: scribe stops using two columns and just writes contents out in one column. Fol. 8v is blank.

Franzen 1998, art. 9
Ker 1957, p. 412
(fols. 9r-69v)
Wulfstan, Institutes of Polity

Arts. 1–4, 6–10, 13–14 comprise the revised version (II Polity). Here presented in a sequence of chapters numbered I-XLIII, incorporating additional texts, arts. 5, 11, 12, 15–22.

Hand 1

1.i. Fols 9r/1–7
II Polity, 1–3
Incipit: 9r/2–4 IN NOMINI DOMINI | An is ece cyning ƿealdend (and) ƿyrhta ealra gesceafta.
Explicit: 9r/6–7 Him symble sy lof (and) ƿuldor (and) ece ƿyrðmynt á to ƿorulde. Amen.
Language(s): English
Filiation: Nero A. i
Jost 1959, p. 39
Franzen 1998, art. 10a
1.ii. Fols 9r/8–10r/22
II Polity, 4–22
Rubric: 9r/8 .ii. BE EORÐLICUM CYNINGE
Incipit: 9r/9–12 CHRISTENUM CYNINGE gebyreð on cristenre þeode þ(æt) he sy ealsƿa hit riht is folces frófer (and) rihtƿis hyrde ofer cristene heorde.
Explicit: 10r/20–22 Ac se byð gesælig þe godcunde lare oftost gehyreð (and) geornlicast healdeþ.
Language(s): English
Filiation: Nero A. i ; CCCC 201
Jost 1959, pp. 41–51
Franzen 1998, art. 10b
1.iii. Fols 10r/22–10v/16
II Polity, 23–30
Rubric: 10r/22 .iii. BE CYNEDOME
Incipit: 10r/23 EAHTA SǷERAS SYNDON || þe rihtlicne cynedom trumlice upƿegað
Explicit: 10v/14–16 ˥ seofoðe, þ(æt) he be freondan (and) be fremdan fadige gelice on rihtlican dome.
Language(s): English
Filiation: Nero A. i ; CCCC 201
Jost 1959, pp. 52–4
Franzen 1998, art. 10c
1.iv. Fols 10v/16–11r/19
II Polity, 31–40
Rubric: 10v/16 .iv. BE CYNESTOLE
Incipit: 10v/17–19 ÆLC RIHT CYNESTOL STENT | on þrym stapelum þe fullice ariht stent | on þrym stapelum · þe fullice a riht stent | áris.
Explicit: 11r/17–19 Ac dó man sƿa hit þearf is alecge man únriht (and) rære up Godes riht þ(æt) mæg to þearfe for Gode (and) for ƿorulde. Am(en) .
Language(s): English
Filiation: Nero A. i ; CCCC 201
Jost 1959, pp. 55–8
Franzen 1998, art. 10d
1.v. Fols 11r/20–12v/2
II Polity, 41–57
Rubric: 11r/20 .v. BE ÐEODǷITAN
Incipit: 11r/21–12r/2 CYNINGAN AND BISCEOPAN. | eorlan ˥ heretogan gerefan (and) deman | larƿitan (and) lahƿitan gedafenað mid rihte || for Gode (and) for ƿorulde | þ (æt) hi ánræde ƿeorðan (and) Godes riht lufian.
Explicit: 12r/21–12v/2 Ic ƿat sƿyðe georne me sylfne forƿorhtne | ƿordes (and) dæde ealles to sƿyðe ne dear | | þeah for forsƿygian mid ealle | Godes ege fela þara þinga þe dereð þisse þeode.
Language(s): English
Filiation: Nero A. i
Jost 1959, pp. 62–6
Franzen 1998, art. 10e
1.vi. Fols 12v/3–13v/6
II Polity, 58–76
Rubric: 12v/3 .vi. ITEM DE EPISCOPIS
Incipit: 12v/4–7 BISCEOPAS SCULAN BOCV(M) | ˥ gebedum fyligean ˥ dæges ˥ nihtes oft ˥ gelome clypian to Criste ˥ for eall cristen | folc þingian georne.
Explicit: 13v/3–6 Nu lære ƿe eac georne | manna gehƿylcne þ (æt) he Godes larum ˥ his | lagum fylgie þonne geearnað he him ece | myrhðe.
Language(s): English and Latin
Filiation: Nero A. i ; CCCC 201
Jost 1959, pp. 67–74
Franzen 1998, art. 10f
1.vii. Fols 13v/6–15r/3
Wulfstan, Concerning Episcopal Duties (Episcopus) (Cameron B14.55)
Rubric: 13v/6 .vii. ITEM
Incipit: 13v/7–9 BISCEOPE GEBYREÐ ÆLC | rihting ge on godcundan þingan ge on | ƿoruldcundan.
Explicit: 15r/1–3 (Þ) y ƿe agan þearfe þæt ƿe ðam beorgan þe us | scylan hyran þonne gebide ƿe þe mare | gebeorh æt Godes agenum dome.
Language(s): English
Franzen 1998, art. 10g
Whitelock 1981, pp. 422–27
1.viii. Fols 15r/3–16
II Polity, 77–81
Rubric: 15r/3 ITEM
Incipit: 15r/4–7 BISCEOPES DÆGǷEORC ÐÆT | bið mid rihte his gebedu ærest ˥ ðonne | his boc ƿeorc · (˥) ræding oððon rihting lar oððon leornung
Explicit: 15r/14–16 ˥ eac him gerisð ƿel þæt he on gemote | oft ˥ gelome godcunde lare dæle þam | folce þe he þonne mid sy.
Language(s): English
Filiation: Nero A. i

One erasure (fol. 15r)

Jost 1959, pp. 75–6
Franzen 1998, art. 10h
1.ix. Fols 15r/16–15v/3
II Polity, 82–84
Rubric: 15r/16 ITEM
Incipit: 15r/17–20 A GERIST. BISCEOPUM. ǷISDO(M) | ˥ ƿærscype ˥ þ(æt) þa habban ƿeorðlice | ƿisan þa þa heom fylian ˥ þ(æt) hy sundor|cræfta sumne eac cunne(n) .
Explicit: 15v/1–3 Ac ƿisdo(m) ˥ ƿærscipe gedafeniað heora hade ˥ gedrihþa gerisaþ þam ðe heom fyliað.
Language(s): English
Jost 1959, p. 77
Franzen 1998, art. 10.i
1.x. Fols 15v/4–17r/10
Bisceopes dægweorc
Incipit: 15v/5 D(eu)s in adiutorium meum intende. ter.
Explicit: Bisceopum gebyreð þæt hi mid geþylde geþo|lian þæt hi sylfe begetan ne magan oð þæt | hit þa, cyncge gecyþed ƿeorðe ˥ bete he | syððan Godes abylhþe þær bisceop | ne mæge gif he Godes ƿillan rihte ƿylle | ƿyrcean ˥ his agene cynescype rihtlice | aræran.
Language(s): English
Filiation: Nero A. i
Jost 1959, pp. 210–16
Franzen 1998, art. 10j
Whitelock 1981, pp. 406–13
1.xi. Fol. 17r/10–17v/13
II Polity, 85–93
Rubric: 17r/10 uiiii BE EORLUM
Incipit: 17r/11–14 EORLAS AND HERETOGAN. | ˥ ðas ƿoruld deman. and eac sƿa gere|fan agan nydþearfe þ(aet) hi riht lufian | for Gode ˥ for ƿorulde.
Explicit: 17v/9–13 Ac dó freonda | gehyƿylc eallsƿa hit þearf is ƿarnige hine | georne ˥ beorge him sylfum þ(æt) he God ne á|belge ealles to sƿyðe ac cƿeme his drihtne | mid rihtlicre dæde.
Language(s): English
Filiation: Nero A. i ; CCCC 201

Erasure in margin on fol. 17v

Jost 1959, pp. 78–80
Franzen 1998, art. 10k
1.xii. Fols 17v/13–18r/17
II Polity, 94–101
Rubric: 17v/13 x BE GEREFAN
Incipit: 17v/14–16 RIHT IS ÐÆT GEREFAN GE|eornlice tylian ˥ symle heora hla|fordan strynan mid rihte.
Explicit: 18r/14–17 ˥ ƿa þæs gestreones þam þe his mæst hafaþ | on unriht gestryned butan he gesƿice | ˥ ðe deoppor gebete for Gode ˥ for ƿor|ulde.
Language(s): English
Filiation: Nero A. i

Erasure in word division on fol. 18r

Jost 1959, pp. 81–82
Franzen 1998, art. 10l
1.xiii. Fols 18r/17–18v/3
II Polity, 170–2
Rubric: 18r/17 xi BE ABBODUM
Incipit: 18r/18–21 RIHT IS Þ(ÆT) ABBODAS ˥ HVRV | abbadissan fæste on mynstrum sing|allice ƿunian ˥ georne heora heorda | symle beguman ˥ áá heom ƿel bysenian | ˥ rihtlice bodian
Explicit: 18v/2–3 sƿa gebyreð abbo|dan ˥ munuchades mannum.
Language(s): English
Filiation: Nero A. i
Jost 1959, p. 122
Franzen 1998, art. 10m
1.xiv. Fols 18v/3–19r/22
II Polity, 173–84
Rubric: 18v/3 xii BE MUNE|CU (M) .
Incipit: 14v/4–7 RIHT IS Þ(ÆT) MUNECAS BEON | dæges ˥ nihtes inƿeardre heortan | á to Gode þencan ˥ geornlice clypian ˥ mid | eallum eadmedum regollice libban.
Explicit: 19r/19–22 Ac ƿe agan néode þæt ƿe hit gebetan sƿa ƿe | geornost magan ˥ ƿeorðan anmode | to gemænelicre þearfe for Gode and for | ƿorulde.
Language(s): English
Filiation: Nero A. i ; CCCC 201
Jost 1959, p. 123–27
Franzen 1998, art. 10n
1.xv. Fol. 19r/22–19v/7
II Polity, 185
Rubric: 19r/22 xiii BE MYNECENAN
Incipit: 19v/1–5 ARIHT IS Þ(ÆT) MYNECENA | mynsterlice macian efne sƿa ƿe cƿædon æror be munecan ˥ ne toƿettan ƿoruldmannum ne ænige sundorcyððe to heo(m) habban ealles to sƿyðe
Explicit: 19v/5–7 ac á regolice libban ˥ hi symle asyndrian fram ƿoruldbysegan sƿa hi geornost magan.
Language(s): English
Filiation: Nero A. i ; CCCC 201
Jost 1959, p. 128
Franzen 1998, art. 10o
xvi. Fol. 19v/7–13
II Polity, 186
Rubric: 19v/7–8 xiiii BE PREOSTAN | ˥ BE NUNNAN.
Incipit: 19v/9–13 RIHT IS ÐÆT PREOSTAS | ˥ efen ƿel nunnan regollice libban ˥ clænnysse healdan be þam þe hi ƿillan on mynstran geƿunian oððon for ƿorulde ƿeorðscypes ƿealdan.
Language(s): English
Filiation: Nero A. i ; CCCC 201

Fol. 19r/23 is blank - there is a tear in the parchment.

Jost 1959, p. 129
Franzen 1998, art. 10p
1.xvii. Fol. 19v/13–19v/23
II Polity, 198–202
Rubric: 19v/13 xu BE ǷUDEǷAN
Incipit: 19v/14–15 RIHT IS ÐÆT ǷYDEǷAN. AN|nan bysenan geornlice fylian.
Explicit: 9v/22–3 Sƿa sceall gód | ƿydeƿe hyran hyre drihtne.
Language(s): English
Filiation: Nero A. i ; CCCC 201
Jost 1959, pp. 136–37
Franzen 1998, art. 10q
1.xviii. Fol. 20r/1–20v/12
On the Servants of God
Rubric: 20r/1 BE GODES ÞEOǷVM.
Incipit: 20r/2–5 LEOFAN MEN IC BIDDE. | geyrað hƿæt ic ƿylle secgan þurh godes | gyfe us eallum to þearfe gecnaƿe se þe | cunne.
Explicit: 20v/11–12 And gyf he elles | do gebete hit georne.
Language(s): English
Jost 1959, pp. 167–69
Franzen 1998, art. 10r
1.xix. Fols 20v/12–23v/3
II Polity, 102–44
Rubric: 20v/12 xuiii BE SACERDU(M)
Incipit: 20v/13–16 SACERDAS SCULAN ON HEORA | scrift scirum ƿislice ˥ ƿærlice lædan | ˥ læran þa godcundan heorda þe hi healdan | sculan.
Explicit: 23r/22–23v/3 Nis se man on life þe areccan mæge | ealle þa yrmða þe se gebidan sceall se ðe || on þa ƿitu ealles behreoseð ˥ hit is ealles | þe ƿyrse þe his ænig ende ne cymð næfre | to ƿorulde.
Language(s): English
Filiation: Nero A. i ; Tiberius A. iii ; CCCC 201
Jost 1959, pp. 85–108
Franzen 1998, art. 10s
2. Fols 23v/3–24r/21
To Priests
Rubric: 23v/3 xuiii AD SACERDOTES
Incipit: 23v/4–7 LA LEOF VNDERSTANDAÐ | eoƿ sylfe ˥ lufiað ˥ ƿeorðiað God ælmih|tigne ofer ealle oðre þinc ˥ healdað his | beboda georne.
Explicit: 24r/18–21 Be mannes geƿrihtum hit man mot secan | æfter canondóme ˥ eac medemian be mihtu(m) | ˥ be mæþe ˥ be þam þe man ongit his heortan | hreoƿsunge ˥ his sylfes geornfulnesse.
Language(s): English
Filiation: CUL Add 3206

Fols 23v/14–24r/21 appear as fols 67r/7–67v/17 below.

Jost 1959, pp. 170–72
Franzen 1998, art. 10t
3-4. Fols 24r/22–25v/6
To Priests
Rubric: 24r/22 xuiiii AD SACERDOTES
Incipit: 25r/1–4 TÆCAÐ CRISTENUM MANNU(M) | georne ˥ gelome rihtne geleafan ˥ þ(æt) hi | cunnon heora cristendome ˥ heora | fulluhtes gescead ƿitan.
Explicit: 25v/3–6 God ælmihtig helpe ure ˥ s(an)c(t)a | Maria ˥ gefultumie us eallum þ(æt) ƿe ægðer | ge us sylfe ge þa þe ƿe ƿisian sceolan sƿa | geƿisian motan sƿa sƿa ure ealra þearf sy.
Language(s): English
Filiation: CUL Add 3206
Jost 1959, pp. 173–77
Franzen 1998, art. 10u
5. Fols 25v/7–31v/9
Wulfstan, Canons of Edgar (Cameron B13.1.1.2)
Incipit: 25v/8–10 RIHT IS ÞÆT PREOSTAS BEON | geornlice gode þeoƿiende ˥ ðeniende | ˥ for eall cristen folc ðingiende
Explicit: 31v/8–9 Þonne geleanað him þæt | god ælmihtig sƿa him leofost bið. Amen.
Language(s): English
Filiation: CCCC 201 ; CUL Add 3206

Fol. 26-small hole at line 6; fol. 26r/13 addition-by main scribe?; fol. 27v/14 and first word of line 15 erasedl; fol. 28v/4-note by Coleman in the margin: Gylden oððe | seolfren | amen (next to: ˥ riht is þæt ælc calic gegote beo).

Jost 1959, pp. 206–08
Fowler 1972, pp. 3–19
Franzen 1998, art. 11
6. Fols 31v/10–32r/14
II Polity, 187–97
Rubric: 31v/10 xxi Be læƿedum mannum.
Incipit: 31v/11–13 RIHT IS ÐÆT GEHADODE M(EN) | læƿede ƿisian hu hi heora æƿe rihtlicost | sculon healdan.
Explicit: 32r/11–13 Nagon læƿede men | freolstídum ne fæstentídum þurh hæmed|ðing ƿifes gemanan þe ma þe heahhades men | þ(æt) ðing agan ænigum timan.
Language(s): English
Filiation: Nero A. i
Jost 1959, pp. 130–34
Franzen 1998, art. 10v
7. Fols 32r/14–34r/3
II Polity, 145–69
Rubric: 32r/14–15 xxii BE ^GE^ HADEDU(M) | MANNV(M)
Incipit: 32r/15–18 GEHADEDV(M) MANNV(M) | gebyreð ælc clænnes forðam þe hi | sculon eallum oðrum mannu(m) ælce un|clænnesse forbeodan.
Explicit: 34r/1–3 God eoƿ getrymme to eoƿre agenre þearfe ˥ us ealle gehealde sƿa his ƿylla sy. Amen.
Language(s): English
Filiation: CCCC 201
Jost 1959, pp. 109–21
Franzen 1998, art. 10w
8. Fols 34r/3–35v/17
Be gehadedum mannum (Duties of Clergy / On Men in Orders, II Polity app. c. 23) (Cameron B13.6)
Rubric: 34r/3–4 xxiii BE GE|HADEDUM MANNUM
Incipit: 34r/5–9 LEOFAN MEN IN LIBRO VISI|onum is aƿriten hu þa mæssepreostas | ˥ ða diaconas þe misleofedan her on ƿorulde | ƿæron on ƿælhreoƿlice geseƿene | sƿa sƿa se encgel ge(s)ƿutelode on ðære ge(s)ihðe.|
Explicit: 35v/12–17 ˥ se þe | heahhád underfo gyf he sy mæssepreost | þonne gemæssige he for his biscop XXX | mæssan ˥ diacon gesinge XXX psaltera | ˥ áá heora lifdagas gebiddon þærto|eacan for hine georne.
Language(s): English

Glosses from the scribe with the very long ascenders and descenders.

Jost 1959, pp. 217–22
Franzen 1998, art. 10x
9-10. Fols 35v/17–42r/18
De ecclesiasticis gradibus (II Polity app. c. 24) (Cameron B13.3)
Rubric: 35v/17–18 xxiiii DE ECCLESIASTI|CUS GRADIBUS
Incipit: 35v/19–21 HEAHHADAS SYNDON | to healdenne. mid sƿiðe miclum ƿis|dome ˥ mid ealre clænnesse.
Explicit: 42r/17–18 God us gefylste þ(æt) ƿe moton ealle sƿa don. | Amen.
Language(s): English
Filiation: CCCC 190 ; CCCC 201 . Second half also in Napier XLVI

There is a major heading on fol. 40r/15 (beg. NE BEO NAN MAN OÐRES; catalogued by Ker as part of Napier XLVI) but this seems to be a division in one text rather than two since there is no new rubric. Glosses throughout by the Tremulous Hand, who has also noted each of the orders in the margins (as well as other glossing). fol. 39: small hole in parchment.

Jost 1959, pp. 223–47
Franzen 1998, art. 10y
11. Fols 42r/18–55v/20
The Benedictine Office (Cameron B12.7.1)
Rubric: 42r/18 xxu De officiis diurnalium noctur|nalium horarum
Incipit: 42r/20–23 GODCUND ÞEOǷDOM IS GE|sett on cyriclicum þenungum æfter | canoneclican geƿunan to nýdrihte eallum | gehadedum mannum.
Explicit: 55v/20 God ús gefultumige. to ure ðearfe sƿa his ƿylla sy. amen.
Language(s): English and Latin
Filiation: CCCC 201 contains the prose parts of this exposition with minor variations, and a poem (Gloria) which has been used in the composition of this text. The metrical psalm-verses are almost identical to those in the Paris Psalter.

Fol. 43r (half-sheet) has two small holes in the bottom righthand corner, and on fol. 51v note by Coleman .

Dobbie 1942, pp. 74–86
Foxhall Forbes 2011
Franzen 1998, art. 12
Ure 1957
12. Fols 55v/20–57v/19
Wulfstan, The Christian Faith: A Rule for Canons (Bethurum 10a) (Cameron B2.2.7)
Rubric: 55v/20 xxxiiii DE REGU|LA CANONICOR(UM) .
Incipit: ÆALDLICE LAH | geƿritu. | ˥ eac godƿpellice bebodu us lærað ˥ myngiað þæt ƿe eallu(m) mode || ˥ eallum mægene ærest God lufian ˥ ƿurðian ˥ syðþan ure nextan lufian ˥ healdan sƿa sƿa us sylfe.
Explicit: þonne geearnað hy lof æt mannum ˥ æt Gode sylfum ece edlean.
Language(s): English and Latin
Bethurum 1957, no. 10a
Jost 1959, pp. 248–55
Franzen 1998, art. 13
13. Fols 57v/19–59r/8
II Polity, 203–222
Rubric: xxxu BE CYRICAN.
Incipit: RIHT IS ÐÆT CRISTENE M(EN) | cristendom georne healdan mid rihte ˥ Cristes cyrican æghƿær geornlice ƿeorþian ˥ ƿerian.
Explicit: ˥ utan ænne cynehlaford holdlice healdan ˥ freonda gehƿylc oðerne healde mid rihtan getryƿðan.
Language(s): English
Filiation: CCCC 201 ; Nero A. i
Jost 1959, pp. 138–52
Franzen 1998, art. 10z
14. Fol. 59r/9–59*r/9
II Polity, 223–34
Rubric: 59r/9 xxxui Be eallum christenum mannum.
Incipit: RIHT IS ÐÆT EALLE CRISTE|ne men heora cristendom rihtlice | healdan ˥ ðam life libban þe heom to gebyrað æfter Godes rihte ˥ æfter ƿoruldgerysenum
Explicit: ˥ beorgan us georne ƿið þone ƿeallendan bryne helleƿites ˥ geearnian us ða mærða ˥ myrhða ðe God hæfð gegearƿod þam ðe his ƿillan on ƿorulde geƿyrcað. Amen.
Language(s): English
Filiation: CCCC 201 ; Nero A. i
Jost 1959, pp. 154–64
Franzen 1998, art. 10aa
15. Fols 59*r/9–61v/13
Wulfstan, Evil Days: God's Threat to Sinning Israel (Bethurum 19) (Cameron B2.4.1)
Rubric: xxxuii Be godcundre ƿarnunge.
Incipit: VTAN SPURIAN | be bocan.
Explicit: Ðis sýnd þa Godes ƿord þe god sýlf gedihte | ˥ moýse befæste ˥ eal hit mæg to býsne | æghƿýlcere ðeode gýme se ðe ƿille god | XXXVIII us gehealde · amen ·
Language(s): English
Filiation: CCCC 201 ; Nero A. i

major heading at fol. 60r/17L EALA LEOFAN MEN BE þylcan bysenan ƿe us magon ƿar|nian.

Bethurum 1957, no. 19
Franzen 1998, art. 14
16. Fols 61v/13–62v/23
Confessionale Pseudo-Egberti: Additional sections printed by Spindler [sections a-l] (Cameron B11.2.1)
Rubric: Her is scrift ˥ an|detnes ægðer tƿegra ge gehadodra. gelæ|ƿedra. þæra þe þæs andgites habbað. ˥ ðæs | ledenes deopnesse ne cunnon.
Incipit: ÞONNE MAN TO HIS SCRIFTE | gangeð · þonne sceall he mid sƿýðe mý|celum godes ege ˥ eadmodnesse beforan | (christ)um hine aþenian · and hine biddan ƿépen|dre stefne ·
Language(s): English and Latin
Filiation: CCCC 190 ; Tiberius A. iii
Frantzen 2010, http://www.anglo-saxon.net/penance/
Franzen 1998, art. 15a
Spindler 1934, no. 1a, pp. 170–71
17. Fols 63r/1–64r/17
Anonymous Homily (Cameron B.3.5.10)
Incipit: LEOFA MAN ÐE IS MYCEL | þearf þ(æt) ðu þas drihtenlican tíde georne geþence.
Language(s): English

Frank and Cameron 1973
Franzen 1998, art. 16
18. Fols 64r/17–65v/14
Wulfstan, The Christian Faith: Translation of the Pater Noster and of the Creed (Bethurum 7a)
Rubric: 64r/17 xxxuiiii Be ðæs halgan sun|nandæges gebede.
Incipit: LEOFAN MENN | understandað georne eallsƿa eoƿ mycel | ðearf is.
Language(s): English
Franzen 1998, art. 17
Napier 1883, no. 26
19. Fols 65v/14–66v/9
Handbook for the Use of a Confessor
Rubric: 65v/14 xl Be þæs mæssepreostas ge|sceadƿisnysse.
Incipit: ÞÆT SCEALL GE|þencan se ðe byð manna saƿla lǽce.
Language(s): English and Latin
Fowler 1965, no. 3, ll. 82–112
Franzen 1998, art. 18
20. Fols 66v/9–67r/7
Handbook for the Use of a Confessor
Rubric: 66v/9 xli BE SCRIFTUM
Incipit: ON ǷISUM SCRIFTE BYÞ | sƿyðe forð ^ge^ lang.
Language(s): English and Latin
Fowler 1965, no. 5, ll. 305–16
Frantzen 2010, http://www.anglo-saxon.net/penance/
Franzen 1998, art. 19a
21. Fols 67r/7–67v/17
Handbook for the Use of a Confessor
Rubric: 67r/7 xlii BE SYNNA | LACNUNGE.
Incipit: SE LÆCA ÐE SCEL | sare ƿunda ƿel gehælan.
Language(s): English and Latin
Fowler 1965, no. 5, ll. 317–40
Frantzen 2010, http://www.anglo-saxon.net/penance/
Franzen 1998, art. 19b
22. Fols 67v/17–69v/8
Confessionale Pseudo-Egberti: Additional sections printed by Spindler [sections n-x]
Rubric: 67v/17 xliii Be | þeódores gesetnysse hu man sceall fæs|ten alýsan.
Incipit: ÐEODORVS SE HALGA. | ˥ se goda biscop gesetta þas rædinge.
Language(s): English and Latin
Filiation: Laud misc 482
Franzen 1998, art. 15b
Spindler 1934, no. 1c, pp. 172–74
23. Fols 69v/8–87r/11
Poenitentiale Pseudo-Egberti (Cameron B11.3.1)
Rubric: 69v/8 i INCIPIT | LIBER primus. cum capitolis atque cum suis sentialis, Þis is ærest se forma capitul ...
Incipit: HIT GEBYRAÐ Þ(ÆT) SE SA|cerd smeage
Language(s): English and Latin

Hand 1

Filiation: Laud misc. 482

Chapters are numbered i-xu (Book 1); i-xxx (Book 2); i-xui (Book 3); i (Book 4)

Frantzen 2010, http://www.anglo-saxon.net/penance/
Franzen 1998, art. 20a
Raith 1933, vols 1–4.11, pp. 1–53 (up to fol. 86v/10); pp. 6–70 (the rest)
24. Fols 87r/11–101r/7
Confessionale Pseudo-Egberti
Rubric: 87r/11 ii Iu|dicium de peccatis multis.
Incipit: Seo æreste forlætnes is fyrena fulƿiht.
Language(s): English and Latin

Hand 1

In Spindler's edition the order of the sections differs.

Frantzen 2010, http://www.anglo-saxon.net/penance/
Franzen 1998, art. 15c
Spindler 1934, nos. 2–28, pp. 174–94
25. Fols 101r/7–15
Poenitentiale Pseudo-Egberti


Rubric: 101r/7 xxuiiii
Incipit: GYF HYǷLC MAN ǷIFIGE ON HIS | nextan magan
Language(s): English and Latin

Hand 1

It also occurs on fol. 77v as Book 2, chap. 17

Frantzen 2010, http://www.anglo-saxon.net/penance/
Franzen 1998, art. 20b
Raith 1933, vols 2.18, pp. 26–26
25. Fols 101r/15–18
Colophon: 101r/15–18 Me scripsit wulfgeatus scriptor | wigornensis. ora obsecrio p(ro) ipsius neuis | cosmi satorem. Amen. Et qui me scripsit | semp(er) sit felix. AMEN.
Language(s): Latin

Hand 1

Possibly copied from exemplar rather than original to the main scribe, since it follows directly from the previous item.

Franzen 1998, art. 20c
26. Fols 101v/1–110v/23
Ælfric, Letters: Letter to Wulfsige (Cameron B1.8.1)
Incipit: Ælfricus humilis fr(a)t(er) uenerabili episcopo | wulfsino salutem ind(ig)no.
Language(s): English and Latin

Hand 1

Filiation: CCCC 190

After this item there are possibly some pages missing. This marks a change of plan in the production of the manucript, which seems originally to have been intended with Hatton 113 and Hatton 114 as one large volume.

Fehr 1914, no. I.1–149
Franzen 1998, art. 21
B. (fols. 111r-160r)


27. Fols 111r/1–124r/18
Ælfric, Letters: Second Old English Letter for Wulfstan (Cameron B1.8.3)
Incipit: Eala ge mæssepreostas mine gebroðru.
Explicit: Gefultumige us se hælend to his halgu(m) bebodum se þe leofad mid his leofan fæder ˥ ðam halgan gaste on anre godcundnysse hi þrý án God, æfre rixiende. Amen.
Language(s): English and Latin
Filiation: CCCC 190 ; Bodley 343 ; Vespasian D. xiv ; Tiberius A. iii
Fehr 1914, no. III
Franzen 1998, art. 22
28. Fols 124r/18–130v/1
Ælfric, Letters: Letter to Wulfgeat (Cameron B1.8.6)
Incipit: Esto consentiens adu(er)sario.
Language(s): English and Latin

Hand 1

This is a homily adapted from Ælfric's Letter to Wulfgeat : it does not contain the first 89 lines in Assman's edition.

Assmann 1889, no. 1
Franzen 1998, art. 23
29. Fols 130v/3–136v/9
Ælfric, Homilies of Ælfric: Dominica Post Ascensionem Domini (Cameron B1.4.9)
Incipit: Cum autem uenerit paraclitus quem | ego mittam uobis a patre. Et r(e)l(iqua) . | Se hæland her on life.
Language(s): English and Latin

Hand 1

Pope 1967–68, no. 9, I. 378–9
Franzen 1998, art. 24
30. 136v/9–137v/17
Wulfstan, Eschatalogical Homilies: Antichrist (Bethurum 1b, Cameron B2.1.1)
Rubric: 136v/9 DE ANTICRISTO.
Incipit: Leofan men understandað sƿyðe georne | þ(æt) ge rihtlice ˥ ƿærlice
Language(s): English and Latin

Hand 1

Fol. 137v/18–22 is blank.

Bethurum 1957, no. 1b
Franzen 1998, art. 25
31. Fols 138r/1–142r/7
Ælfric, First Series of Homilies [Catholic Homilies I]: First Sunday in Advent (Cameron B1.1.41)
Rubric: 138r/1 DOM(INI)C(A) .I(a) . DE ADUENTU D(OMI)NI
Incipit: Ðíses dæges þéning ˥ þissere tide mærð | sprecað ymbe godes tocyme.
Language(s): English

Hand 6

Clemoes 1997, no. 39
Franzen 1998, art. 26
32. 142r/8–148v/9
Ælfric, First Series of Homilies [Catholic Homilies I]: Second Sunday in Advent (Cameron B1.1.42)
Rubric: 142r/8 DOM(INI)C(A) .II(a) . DE ADUENTU D(OMI)NI
Incipit: Se godspellere lucas aƿrát on ðisum dægðerlican godspelle.
Language(s): English

Hand 6

Clemoes 1997, no. 40
Franzen 1998, art. 27
33. Fols 148v/10–154v/12
Anonymous Homilies, Homilies for Specified Occasions, Temporale: Easter Day: De Descensu Christe ad Inferos (Cameron B3.2.28)
Incipit: Nu ƿe habbað eoƿ gesæd | anfealdlice
Explicit: þurh ealra ƿorulda ƿorod Amen.
Language(s): English

Hands 3, 7, 8

Clemoes 1997, no. 14, 296/167–78 (fols 153r/21–153v/14)
Franzen 1998, art. 28
34. Fols 154v/13–157r/3
Ælfric, First Series of Homilies [Catholic Homilies I]: English Preface [adapted]
Incipit: Menn behofiað godre lare
Language(s): English

s. xi 2 ( Ker 1957); 1060–1080 ( Franzen 1998).

Hand 9

Filiation: The preface has been adapted as a homily: the same adaptation is found in Hatton 115 .

On fol. 155v, with musical notes: Iste homo ab atholescentia sua partim meruit in firmos curare dedit illi dominus claritatem magnam cecos illuminare et demones effugare.

Clemoes 1997, 174/57–176/119
Franzen 1998, art. 29
35. Fols 157r/4–160r/15
Ælfric, Second Series of Homilies [Catholic Homilies II]: Assumption of the Virgin (Cameron B1.2.36)
Incipit: INTRAUIT IE(SU)S IN QUODDAM CASTELLU(M) . RELIQ(UA) . | Se hælend becom into sumere eaðlican byrig.
Language(s): English and Latin

Hand 10

Fol. 161v is blank.

Franzen 1998, art. 30
Godden 1979, no. 29

Glosses throughout by the Tremulous Hand; some later glosses (e.g. arts. 5, 8).

Physical Description

Form: codex
Support: Parchment
Extent: vii + 161 + i
Dimensions (leaf): 265 × 155 mm.

Foliated. An earlier foliation in Joscelyn's hand starts from 1 on fol. 102 and ends at 59 on fol. 160. ( Franzen 1998, pp. 56, 58)


1–16 8 ; 3 and 6 in Quires 5 and 6 are half-sheets; 17 10 ; 18–19 8 ; 20 8 wants 8, probably blank. Fol. 161 (the last of Quire 20) is paper. Quire signatures are marked on the left hand side of the bottom margin of the last verso of Quire 2: 'a' (fol. 16v); and on left hand side of the bottom margin of the first recto of Quires 3–14: 'b' (fol. 17r); 'c' (fol. 25r); 'd' (fol. 33r); 'e' (fol. 41r); 'f' (fol. 49r); 'g' (fol. 57r); 'h' (fol. 64r); 'i' (fol. 72r); 'k' (fol. 80r); 'l' (fol. 88r); 'm' (fol. 96r); 'n' (fol. 104r). [The quire signatures in Hatton 113 , beginning at 'p', are probably a continuation of these.]


The first folios of the manuscript have wormholes, but mostly the condition is very good. There are more holes in parchment towards the end of the book. Fol. 9 has the bottom right (recto) cut away. Fol. 81 has been mended with paper.


Fols 1–8 : ruled space 198 × 108 mm. 23 lines of two columns for table of contents, with double bounding lines right, left, and centre.

Fols 9–127; 138–45 : ruled space 198 × 106 mm. 23 long lines with double bounding lines, right and left.

Fols 128–137 (Quire 17) : ruled space 187 × 90 mm. 22 long lines with double bounding lines, right and left.


The bulk of the manuscript (fols 5–137) is written by one hand (Ker's Hand 1, Ker 1957, item 338, at p. 417), apparently the same as the main hand of Hatton 113 and Hatton 114 ( Ker 1957, item 331). There are a number of additions (glosses and larger pieces) to the manuscript by at least ten other hands.

Hand 1. Fols 5–137 Ker describes this as a Worcester script; this hand is also found in other Worcester manuscripts including CCCC 178 (1957, p. 417: see also item 41). The 'possible change of hand' on fol. 111 seems to be simply a thicker pen, although ‘ð’ is slightly different; the overall appearance is similar to Hand 2. same occasional high ‘a’ The shape of the second element of ‘æ’ is influenced by the letter which succeeds it. ‘e’ is round-backed or horned depending on its place in the word and the following letter. Wide tail on ‘g’ . ‘s’ is slightly wedgier. The descender of ‘þ’ is notched. Most ‘ascenders’ except that of ‘þ’ are clubbed, but some ascenders have wedged clubs and some are wedged; for example, on ‘h’ and ‘b’ , in English and Latin. Some erasures, some additions: found throughout the manuscript. gesƿr^a^ecan Added interlinearly. The colour of the added letter ‘a’ is paler than the main text. It might have been added at a later stage.

Hand 2. Fols 1v-2v This is very like the main hand; in fact, since the first folios are in Latin and much of Hand 1 is written in Old English, the two are not always directly comparable. Where Hand 1 writes in Latin there are similar features: some mixing of clubs and wedges; slant on Caroline ‘h’ , wedgy ‘p’ , wide open ‘g’ . Some letters are distinct enough to suggest that these are two separate hands: more of a wedge on long ‘s’ has a long descender in this hand. ‘x’ has a long descender in this hand.

Hand 3. Fols 148v/10–22; 150r; 150v/16–151r; 152r-3v; 154r/17–154v/12 This hand is angular and upright, the letters are quite narrow, it is possibly the hand of Hemming ( Ker 1948, p. 417). The top of ‘e’ in ‘æ’ is very high. ‘d’ has a very short and tiny ascender. ‘g’ has an open bowl. ‘h’ has very tiny feet. Long ‘s’ is sometimes almost flat-topped. The ‘orum’ abbreviation slants downwards.

Hand 4. Fols 3–4 This is quite a rounded Caroline script, wedges and clubs are not mixed (unlike in other hands in this manuscript). The ‘orum’ abbreviation is straight.

Hand 5. Fols 4r-v This hand has long loopy descenders and wedges. Occasionally a big loopy Caroline ‘a’ .

Hand 6. Fols 138r-48v This is quite like Hand 2, and just possibly could be the same as it, except that this hand seems less practised. This hand is rounder than Hand 1 and sometimes leans to the right slightly. ‘ð’ tends to flick to the right.

Hand 7. Fols 149r-v; 150v/1–15; 151v This hand has wedges on the feet of minims. ˥ is almost at right-angles. The descenders don't usually have wedges on their feet. On fol 150v/1–15 possibly a thinner pen. ‘y’ : curves to the left noticeably. ‘g’ : has a closed bowl. Long ‘s’ : very high and has quite a long descender, too. Very wedgy. This is similar to Hands 1 and 2, but quite thick.

Hand 8. Fols 154r/1–16 Uneven hand. The letters are not always firmly on the ruled line. Ascender on ‘d’ very short long. Has ‘a’ high ‘e’ , slightly left-leaning. ‘a’ few. Odd ‘ð’ where the scribe has drawn ‘o’ and then added an ascender. Closed bowl on ‘g’ . Long ‘descenders’ .

Hand 9. Fols 154v-157 This scribe is not good at writing on the lines. This is a left-leaning, flowing script. ‘a’ : round. ‘æ’ : round. Open ‘g’ . High long ‘s’ sometimes with descender drooping below the line. ‘˥’ is high. The top of ‘ð’ curls round to the right. The bottoms of the descenders flick to the left . ‘y’ long and left-flicking Chunky feet on ‘minims’ .

Hand 10. Fols 157–60 This hand is quite square and wedgy. ‘d’ the ascender is short. ‘y’ is long and flicks to the left The bowl of ‘g’ is open.

Hand 11. There are several layers of glosses by the Tremulous Hand in Latin and English. xiii 1

Musical Notation:

Neums, fol. 1r, occasionally elsewhere in the margins.


Coloured initials, sometimes with a little decoration. Some blue initials, e.g. fol. 124v; also numerous green and red intials, often used alternately in a text (presumably to highlight sections for reading).


Bound, s. xviii , in blind-tooled brown leather (Ure 1957, p. 3)


Origin: s. xi 2; additions, s. xiii 1 ; England, Worcester, cathedral priory

Provenance and Acquisition

Written at Worcester, as evidenced by the script. At Worcester cathedral priory in the thirteenth century, when annotated by the Tremulous Hand. Referred to as a book of 'Worcester Librarye' in 1566 and catalogued at Worcester by Patrick Young in 1622–3 (see Ker). The manuscript was annotated by Joscelyn (fol. 86v, etc.) and perhaps by Archbishop Parker (fol. 4) (Ker).

In the possession of Christopher Lord Hatton in 1644, when used by Dugdale (Bodl. MS. Dugdale 29, fol. iv verso, as cited by Ker). There are notes by Dugdale on fol. iii recto and by Langaine on fols. ii verso, iii recto.

Passed to Franciscus Junius, 1589–1677 , and acquired after his death by the Bodleian Library in 1678.

Record Sources

Adapted with minor revisions from the description by Helen Foxhall Forbes with the assistance of Hollie Morgan (September 2010) for The Production and Use of English Manuscripts: 1060 to 1220, reused by permission. Previously described in the Summary Catalogue (1937).


To ensure its availability to future readers, access to this item is restricted, and readers are asked to work from reproductions and published descriptions as far as possible. To apply to see the original, please send a message to specialcollections.enquiries@bodleian.ox.ac.uk, outlining the subject of your research, the importance of this item to that research, and the resources you have already consulted.


    Online resources:

    Printed descriptions and other references:

    Franzen, Christine, 'Oxford, Bodleian Junius 121 (5232): Ecclesiastical Institutes, Homilies', in Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts in Microfiche Facsimile (Tempe, AZ: Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, 1998), pp. 55–67
    Gneuss, Helmut, Handlist of Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts: A List of Manuscripts and Manuscript Fragments Written or Owned in England up to 1100 (Tempe, AZ: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2001); rev. ed. with Michael Lapidge (Toronto, 2014), item 644
    Ker, N. R., Catalogue of Manuscripts Containing Anglo-Saxon (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1957; repr. 1990), item 338

    Other references:

    Assmann, Bruno, ed., Angelsächsischen Homilien und Heiligenleben , Bibliotek der angelsächsischen Prosa, 13 (Kassel: Wigand, 1889; repr. 1964)
    Atkins, Ivor, and Neil R. Ker, eds., Catalogus Librorum Manuscriptorum Bibliothecae Made in 1622–1623 by Patrick Young Librarian to King James I (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1944)
    Bateson, Mary, 'A Worcester Cathedral Book of Ecclesiastical Collections', English Historical Review , 10 (1895), 712–31
    Bethurum, Dorothy ed., The Homilies of Wulfstan (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1957)
    Clemoes, Peter, ed., Ælfric's Catholic Homilies: The First Series. Text , EETS, SS 17 (London: Oxford University Press, 1997)
    Crawford, S. J., 'The Worcester Marks and Glosses of the Old English Manuscripts in the Bodleian, together with the Worcester Version of the Nicene Creed', Anglia , 52 (1928), 1–25
    Cross, J. E., and A. Hamer, eds, Wulfstan's Canon Law Collection (Woodbridge, UK: Brewer, 1999)
    Dobbie, Elliott van Kirk, ed., The Anglo-Saxon Minor Poems , The Anglo-Saxon Poetic Records, 6 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1942)
    Fehr, Bernard, ed., Die Hirtenbriefe Ælfrics , Bibliothek der angelsächsicschen Prosa, 9 (Hamburg: Henri Grand, 1914; repr. with a supplement to the introduction by Peter Clemoes, Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1966)
    Fowler, Roger, 'A Late Old English Handbook for the Use of a Confessor', Anglia , 83 (1965), 1–34
    —, ed., Wulfstan's Canons of Edgar , EETS, OS 266 (London: Oxford University Press, 1972)
    Foxhall Forbes, Helen, 'Squabbling Siblings: Gender and Monastic Life in Late Anglo-Saxon Winchester', Gender and History , 23.3 (2011), 653–84
    Frank, Roberta and Angus Cameron, A Plan for the Dictionary of Old English (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1973)
    Frantzen, Allen J., Penitentials: A Cultural Database ( http://www.anglo-saxon.net/penance/ , 2010)
    Franzen, Christine, The Tremulous Hand of Worcester: A Study of Old English in the Thirteenth Century (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991)
    Frere, Walter Howard, ed., The Winchester Troper , HBS, 8 (London: Harrison, 1894)
    Godden, Malcolm, ed., Ælfric's Catholic Homilies: The Second Series , EETS, SS 5 (London: Oxford University Press, 1979)
    Jost, K, ed., Die 'Institutes of Polity, Civil and Ecclesiastical' , Swiss Studies in English, 47 (Bern: Francke, 1959)
    Ker, N. R., 'Old English Notes Signed "Coleman"', Medium Ævum , 18 (1949), 27–30
    Liebermann , F., ed., Die Gesetze der Angelsachsen , 3 vols (Halle: Max Niemeyer, 1903 )
    LUNA ( http://bodley30.bodley.ox.ac.uk:8180/luna/servlet ; accessed August 2010)
    Mansi, J. D., ed., Sacrorum Conciliorum Nova et amplissima collectio (Florence: Antonius Zatta, 1775), 20
    McIntyre, E. A., 'Early Twelfth Century Worcester Cathedral Priory, with special reference to the manuscripts written there' (unpublished DPhil dissertation, University of Oxford, 1978)
    Napier, Arthur Sampson, ed., Wulfstan: Sammlung der ihm zugeschriebenen Homilien nebst Untersuchungen uber ihre Echtheit , Sammlung englischer Denkmaeler in Kritischen Ausgaben, 4 (Berlin: Weidmannsche Buchhandlung, 1883)
    Parker, Matthew, De antiquitate Britannicae Ecclesiae (London: John Day, 1572)
    Pope, John C., ed., Homilies of Aelfric: a Supplementary Collection , EETS, OS 259 and 260 (London: Oxford University Press, 1967–68)
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Last Substantive Revision

2020-06: Summary description replaced with full description from Production and Use of English Manuscripts 1060–1220