A catalogue of Western manuscripts at the Bodleian Libraries and selected Oxford colleges

MS. Rawl. C. 86

Summary Catalogue no.: 11951

Composite miscellany of literary, historical and devotional texts, mostly in Middle English

Physical Description

Form: codex
Extent: ii (later paper) + 189 + i (later paper); one unfoliated later paper sheet inserted after fol. 1
Foliation: i-ii, 1-129, 129*-190


Medieval leaf signatures in the usual form in part II, showing that the quires were originally arranged as follows: fols. 77-89; fols. 52-76; fols. 141-158; fols. 159-177; fols. 31-51. All quires numbered 1-2, 6-16 in early modern ink, suggesting the loss of three quires between fols. 30 and 31 at a later stage. Parts II-III have an early common history, with part II seemingly supplemented by part III, and repairs made at the same time to part II (the replacement leaves fols. 52, 75-6 written by the same hand as fols. 125r-v, 128r-140r and replacement leaf fol. 159 apparently by the same hand as fols. 90r-124c, 126r-128r).


18th-century (?) red leather (probably goatskin) binding with gilt fillets around the edge of the covers; title on the spine 'Old English Poems'; fol. 1r, ‘Bind this in vellum \Turkey Leather/’.


Provenance and Acquisition

16th(?)-century title 'Lidgate', fol. 1r; occasional 16th/17th century annotations providing titles and authors, e.g fols. 52r, 91r; 17th- or 18th-century table of contents, front pastedown; fragment of an earlier label (?) pasted to fol. i recto, ‘90.(?)

Randal(?) D⟨rewe⟩’, late 16th or 17th century, effaced, fol. 1r; so read by Manly and Rickert.

‘William(?) ⟨Howarde⟩’, late 16th or early 17th century, effaced, fol. 1r, but nevertheless identifiable (for example by comparison with British Library Arundel MS. 74 fol. 1r) as the ex libris of Lord William Howard (1563-1640)

‘M.S. Knox Ward Clarencieux’ (fol. 1r): Knox Ward, Clarenceux King of Arms 1726-41; his sale, 1749.

Richard Rawlinson, 1690–1755; his bookplate, upper pastedown.

Bequeathed to the Bodleian in 1755

MS. Rawl. C. 86 - Part I (fols. 1-30)


Language(s): Middle English

(fol. 1v)

Miniature: see decoration. Fol. 1r blank except for later notes and names, see Provenance (above, for the whole volume).

1. (fols. 2r-30v)
The Northern Passion (DIMEV 3124)
Incipit: Off gostly Maters I wyll meve | To yow that are in cristis Beleve
Explicit: An C dayes also off Indulgens and pardon | And godde off hevyn is dere Benysvn
Colophon: Finitur iste liber | Sit scriptor liber.
Final rubric: Explicit passio domini nostri Ihesu Christi composita a quodam sapientissimo in materna lingua videlicet anglicorum hominibus non intelligentibus scripturarum sensus

Ex libris of William Aylysburrey; see Provenance.

Physical Description

Form: codex
Support: Mixed paper (folded in quarto) and parchment; the outer and central bifolia of each quire parchment. Watermark close to Briquet 2988 (used ?1417-1449).
Dimensions (leaf): 275 × 200 mm.


1(22-2, 5 cancelled before fol. 5 and 20 cancelled before fol. 19, with no loss of text); 2(12-2 (?): 11 and 12 cancelled after fol. 30, no loss of text)


1 col., c. 36-38 lines; frame-ruled in crayon; ruled space c. 175-80 × 92 mm.


One hand; predominantly secretary forms with occasional anglicana /a/ and /r/.


Miniature (tinted and gilded drawing, possibly unfinished), fol. 1v: Crucifixion with Mary and John, Christ with a starburst on his chest, framed by a border with evangelist symbols at each corner.

Border of leaves and flowers in penwork with green and yellow wash (possibly unfinished), fol. 2r.

Seven-line decorated initial O, of reserved penwork on a ground of yellow wash with red highlighting, fol. 2r.

Two-line initials in red, with penwork in the ink of the text on fols. 2v-3r.

Elsewhere plain two-line initials in red.

First letter of each line touched in red; red rhyme-braces; decorative ascenders and descenders touched with red.


Origin: 15th century, middle ; England, Norfolk (?) (LALME I.115 assigns language to Norfolk ('mixed, E Anglian and SE Midland English') noting that Bermondsey (see below) was a sister house of Thetford)


Bermondsey, Surrey, Cluniac priory and (from 1399) abbey of St Saviour (?): 'Iste liber constat Wyll(el)mus Aylysburrey monachus sancti Saluatoris de Bermudesay' (fol. 30v). (The original owner's name has been erased and W. A. etc. added.) (MLGB3: evidence from an inscription of ownership by an individual member of a religious house (which may not, however, be evidence for institutional ownership)). William Aylesbury likely identifiable as the monk of that name who occurs in 1519 (Griffiths, 383 n. 4).

MS. Rawl. C. 86 - Part II (fols. 31-89, 141-177)


Language(s): Middle English with a little Latin

2. (fol. 31r)

Originally blank (?); verses added by the main scribe (all printed Early English Meals and Manners, ed. F. J. Furnivall (1868), 219-220):

Incipit: Utter thy langage wyth good a visement Reule the by Reason in thy termeӡ all
Seven lines; DIMEV 6137, this copy only
Incipit: What man þu seruyst all wey him drede
Four lines; DIMEV 6242 (fully transcribed); identified at DIMEV 6137 as lines 64-7 of Peter Idley's Instructions.
Incipit: Folus lade polys wisemen ete þe fysshe
Two lines; DIMEV 1333, this copy only, fully transcribed.
Incipit: Who so in youthe no vertu vsith
Two lines; DIMEV 1867, fully transcribed.
Incipit: Deame þe best in euery dowte
Two lines; DIMEV 1112, fully transcribed.
Incipit: It is þe properte of A gentilman
Two lines; DIMEV 2745, fully transcribed.
Incipit: Si vis dolere[sic] tua crimina dic miserere
Two lines; Walter 18075.
3. (fols. 31v-50r)
Ranulf Higden, Polychronicon (excerpts in anon. Middle English translation, not Trevisa's, IPMEP 605)
Rubric: Policronica
Incipit: Josephus of Jewes þat nobyl was the first auctour of the booke of Policronica
Explicit: accordyng to þe same. Explicit.

Followed by a historical note ‘After þe begynnyng of the worlde in m. iiii. vi yere Brute landyd in Albian and Afore þe incarnac[i]on i m. ix. yere Gogmagog kyng of Albian gave many harde assautes to the Trogannis etc.’ (in full), then breaks off.

4. (fols. 50r-50v)
Incipit: Adam had a sonne called seeth seeth had a sonne called enoch
Explicit: but þis is not auctorysed kyng lanedin

A Biblical genealogy (IMEP XXIII.94 gives no other texts). Breaks off imperfect due to the loss of (at least) one leaf after fol. 50.

5. (fol. 51r)
Incipit: I sarvyd oure lady bothe nyghte and day
(DIMEV 2269)

Diagrams of hands below, one tracing the leaf's watermark; names and pen-trials on fol. 51v, see Provenance.

6. (fols. 52r-59r)
The Tale of Jack and his Stepdame (DIMEV 1599)
Incipit: God that died for us all
Final rubric: Here endyth þe tale of Jak and his stepdame

Fol. 52 is a supply leaf.

7. (fol. 59r)
Verses, added by the main scribe
Incipit: Who so in welth takyth non hede
(DIMEV 6621)
Incipit: Synge I wold but alas discedunt prospera grata
(DIMEV 4853, lines 1-4 only; possible cross-reference '123', '90' in the margin)
8. (fols. 59v-60v)
Who carps of birds of great gentries (Of hawks) (DIMEV 6542)
Rubric: Ffabula
Incipit: When men motyth of byrdys of gret gentres
Explicit: And pulle of her bellys and let her flye \to þe devell/. Finis.
9. (fol. 60v)
Veterinary recipe for a horse
Rubric: A good medicine for þe paynes of a horsse
Given in full IMEP XXIII.94; added by the main scribe
10. (fols. 61r-62r)
John Lydgate, Dietary (DIMEV 1356)
Incipit: Ffor health of body covere for colde þyn hede
Explicit: To all indifferent þe rycheste dietarye. Finis.
11. (fols. 62v-64v)
John Lydgate, Testament (DIMEV 3937)
Incipit: Beholde man lyfte up þy eye and se
Explicit: ffor þe I offerd my blode in sacrifice. Finis.
12. (fols. 65r-66v)
Appeal of Christ to Man (DIMEV 3032)
Incipit: Late as I wente on myn pleyng
Explicit: Quid vultra debui facere. Finis.
13. (fols. 67r-69r)
The Complaint of God (DIMEV 5707)
Incipit: Thys is goddis avne compleynte
Explicit: That euer we were to oure frende vnkynde. Finis.
14. (fols. 69v-71r)
A lament of the Virgin Mary ('Quia amore langueo') (DIMEV 2461)
Incipit: In A tabernacle of A towre
Explicit: To blysse Quia amore langueo. Finis.
15. (fols. 71r-72v)
‘I wiyte my silf myn own woo’ (DIMEV 2551)
Incipit: In my youth full wylde I was
Explicit: Or wite þy self þyn owne woo. Finis.
16. (fols. 72v-74r)
A lament of the Virgin Mary (DIMEV 2442)
Incipit: In A chirche as I gan knele
Explicit: for my sonne dyede my dere sonne dere. Finis.
17. (fols. 74v-76v)
A lament of the Virgin Mary ('Filius regis mortuus est') (DIMEV 667)
Incipit: As Ihesu rewlith myn reccheles mynde
Explicit: That filius Regis mortuus est. Finis.

Fols. 75-6 apparently supply leaves.

18. (fols. 77r-79r)
John Lydgate (?), On the Mutability of Man’s Nature due to the Seasons the Elements, the Complexions, and the Planets (Pageant of Knowledge) (DIMEV 5533)
Rubric: Fabula
Incipit: The worlde so wyde þe ayre so remevabill
Explicit: Towarde þat lyfe where Ioy is aye lastynge

The text extensively corrected.

19. (fol. 79r)
Recipes (added, in the original hand) 'for the farcion', 'for the mygrym'.

Given in full IMEP XXIII.94.

20. (fols. 79v-81r)
John Lydgate, Song of Vertu (DIMEV 663)
Incipit: As of hony men gadren swetnesse
Explicit: With hym to dwell above þe sterrys clere
21. (fol. 81r)
Recipes 'For the ache and yche', 'for the stone', 'for the hete in a mannys vysage', added by the main hand.

First and last given in full in IMEP XXIII.94

22. (fols. 81r-83v)
John Lydgate, Look in thy mirror (DIMEV 6059)
Incipit: Towarde thende of frosty January
Explicit: Loke wele your myrrours & deme none oþer wyght. Finis.
23. (fols. 84r-86r)
John Lydgate, Verses against haste (DIMEV 335)
Incipit: All hast is odious wher as discrecion
Explicit: Enbrace þat baner and do þer on a byde. Finis.
24. (fols. 86v-88r)
John Lydgate (?), Stans Puer ad Mensam (DIMEV 3588)
Rubric: Stands puer ad mensam made in Engles by þe monke of Bery called Lydgate
Incipit: My dere chyld first þy selffe enable
Explicit: Put all defavte vpon Iohn lydgate. Finis.
25. (fol. 88r)
Recipes 'For the mygrym', 'For the paulsey', added in the main hand.

Given in full IMEP XXIII.94-5

26. (fols. 88v-89r)
John Lydgate, Horns Away (DIMEV 4169)
Incipit: Of god and kynde procedeth all beavte
Explicit: By exampill of her your hornes caste a waye. Finis.
27. (fol. 89v)
John Gower (?), Balade moral
Incipit: Passe forthe þu pilgryme and brydell wele þi beste
Explicit: Thow shalt haue hurt yf þu play with her longe
DIMEV 4346; here four stanzas only, probably imperfect due to the loss of a leaf.

For fols. 90-140 see below, part III.

28. (fols. 141r-142r)
John Lydgate (?), That now is hay þat sumtyme was grasse (DIMEV 5575)
Rubric: Fabula
Incipit: Ther is full lytel sicurnesse
Explicit: Ther is no hey but all fressh grasse. Finis.

Lacking lines 54-117 as printed, due to the loss of a leaf after fol. 141.

29. (fol. 142r)
Incipit: Dum viuis et bene stas et sursum cornua gestas
Explicit: Et caueas ne forte ruas cum stare puteris

Four lines; not in Walther.

30. (fol. 142v)
The Treachery of Fortune (DIMEV 4096, the only manuscript, possible a prologue to the following item)
Rubric: Gwyscard and Segismonde
Incipit: O woeful worlde deceyvor of mankind
Explicit: ffor fortune turneth sodenly. Finis.

Rubric in the original hand, but apparently a later addition.

31. (fols. 143r-155r)
Gilbert Banester, The Tale of Guiscardo and Ghismonda (DIMEV 6534)
Incipit: (prologue) ||Eche to othir þay suffir most payne
Explicit: Whos corsis now lyeth in thayre chestis grauyd
Final rubric: Explicit prologus

Begins imperfect owing to the loss of two leaves before fol. 143.

(fol. 143r)
Added recipe (main hand) 'For the ache in fete or arme of a man'.

Given in full IMEP XXIII.95

Incipit: (text) Whylome was þer an hygh & myghty prynce
Explicit: Graunt þes lovers Ioy so endith my tale. Finis.
(fol. 155r)
Added recipe (main hand) 'For the ache of the goute'.

Given in full IMEP XXIII.95

32. (fols. 155v-156r)
Love Poem (DIMEV 3506)
Incipit: Myne hert is set vppon A lusty pynne
Explicit: This ioy and I I trust shal neuer twyn
Final rubric: Finis ^quod^ Quene Elyzabeth ['quod ... Elyzabeth' a slightly later addition by the original scribe]
33. (fols. 156)
Computatio de feodis militum (IPMEP 711)

Added (by the original scribe); on the number of counties, towns, parishes, knights' fees in England.

34. (fols. 156v-173v)
Geoffrey Chaucer, The Clerk’s Tale (DIMEV 5573)
Rubric: Grysill
Incipit: There is ryght atte west syde of Italie
Explicit: And euer to haue pacience in oure mynde
Final rubric: Finis Gryseld

Lacking lines 83-211, 265-316, 367-417 due to the loss of two leaves after fol. 156, one leaf after fol. 157, and one leaf after fol. 158. Fol. 159 (lines 418-481) are a later (16th century) supply leaf; fol. 160r picks up at l. 485, so lines 482-4 are missing.

35. (fols. 173v-177v)

The quire is filled out by a number of shorter texts all in the original hand:

(fol. 173v)
Incipit: Clara dies Pauli bona tempora denotat anni

Verses on prognostication of the weather; four lines (Walter 2825).

(fol. 173v)
Medical recipe
Rubric: For the Goute

Given in full IMEP XXIII.95

(fol. 173v)
Rubric: Fortuna
Incipit: O tu fortuna cur non es omnibus una

Four lines (Walter 13013)

(fol. 173v)
Medical recipe
Rubric: For the pylys ache

Given in full IMEP XXIII.95

(fol. 174r)
On the death of Edward IV
Incipit: Carmina qui letus cecini cano tristia mestus
Explicit: Omnes Angligeni quia rex et tutor eorum

The only copy; not in Walther; pr. Anne F. Sutton and Livia Visser-Fuchs, 'Laments for the death of Edward IV: "It was a world to see him ride about"', The Ricardian 11, 145 (1999), 506-524 at 519-20.

36. (fols. 174v-175r)
Geoffrey Chaucer, The Prioress’s Prologue (DIMEV 3970)
Incipit: O goode lorde thyn Name how mervelous
Explicit: Tendyr myn songe þat I shall you saye
37. (fols. 175r-177v)
Geoffrey Chaucer, The Prioress’s Tale (DIMEV 5601)
Incipit: Ther was in assye in the grete Cite
Explicit: Evill shall þey haue þat evill deserue||

Ends imperfect at line 632 due to the loss of a leaf after fol. 177.

Physical Description

Form: codex
Support: Paper, folded in folio. Watermarks: (fol. 51, later supply leaf) glove with six-pointed star and three-part cuff (cf. fol. 159, but here on a chainline), (fol. 52, replacement leaf) glove with five-pointed star; (fols. 77-89) bull's head with six-pointed star, cf. Piccard IX.3-5 (c. 1460-75), (fols. 53-74, 141-158) bull's head with six-pointed star, eyes and nose, type Piccard IX.181-214 (c. 1448-80), (fols. 31-51, 160-177), hand with four-petalled flower, cf. Briquet 10708 (used 1478), a type not in Piccard; (fol. 159, replacement leaf), hand/glove with six-petalled flower and three-part cuff, type Piccard Online 155939-41 etc., used c. 1520.
Dimensions (leaf): 283 × 213 mm.


3(22-1)('E', fols. 31-51: wants 21 after fol. 50, with loss of text, and fol. 51 is a later supply leaf), 4(24+1) ('b', fols. 52-76: fol. 76 added after 24; fols. 52 and 75-6 are later replacement leaves), 5(16-3) ('a', fols. 77-89: wants 1 before fol. 77, perhaps without loss of text, and 15-16 after fol. 89, probably with some loss of text) | 11(26-8) ('c', fols. 141-158, wants 1 before fol. 141 perhaps without loss of text, 3 before fol. 142 with loss of text, 5-6 before fol. 143 with loss of text, and 21-22 after fol. 156, 24 after fol. 157, 26 after fol. 158, all with loss of text), 12(22-3) ('d', fols. 159-177, wants 15-16 after fol. 172, no loss of text, and 22 after fol. 177, with loss of text; fol. 159 is a replacement supply leaf)


One column of usually 26-27 lines. No ruling; the paper has been folded to provide vertical guide-lines. Written space approximately 205-225 × 110 mm.


Mostly one secretary hand; the supply leaves (fols. 52, 75, 76) in another later hand; supply leaf fol. 159 in another hand; both latter hands probably also found in part III.


Occasional rubrics in red (e.g. fol. 77r)

Added drawings of hands/gloves, fol. 51r-v (based on the watermark).

Otherwise no decoration.


Origin: 15th century, last third (at least in part after 1483), or early 16th century ; England


Fol. 51v, 'Hamond Span(?)', 'John Samson', possibly John Sampson (d. 1555) of London (Griffiths, 385).

Fol. 80r, 'Thomas Roff(?)', unidentified

Fol. 87v, 'Wylliam Warner the son of Thomas Warner', possibly William Warner (d. 1521) of London (Griffiths, 385).

MS. Rawl. C. 86 - Part III (fols. 90-140)


Language(s): Middle English

Fol. 90r originally blank, for later pen-trials and additions see Provenance; fol. 90v blank.

38. (fols. 91r-100r)
John Lydgate, Hors, Goose and Shepe (DIMEV 1075)
Incipit: Contrauersies Plees and all discorde
Explicit: That noman should haue of other disdeyn
Final rubric: Explicit a moralle tale of the horse the goose & the shepe
39. (fols. 100r-106r)
Piers of Fulham's Conceits in Love (DIMEV 112)
Rubric: \Pyerse of Fullham/
Incipit: A Man that loueth fisshyng & foulyng bothe
Explicit: In oure tong Called Chilrage
Final rubric: Explcit[sic] Piers of Fullam
40. (fols. 106v - 113r)
Colyn Blowbols Testament (DIMEV 6416; only this manuscript)
Rubric: Here foloweth Colyn blowbols Testament
Incipit: Whan that Bachus the myghti lorde
Explicit: Lest thow be had in repreef and despite
Final rubric: Here endyth Colyn Blobollys Testament
41. (fols. 113r-119v)
Geoffrey Chaucer, Legend of Good Women (Dido) (DIMEV 177)
Rubric: \The Complaynt of dido/ \Lidgate/
Incipit: Glorie and honowre virgill mantuain
Explicit: Rede ovide & In hym ye shall it fynde
Final rubric: Explicit ye complant of dido
42. (fols. 119v-128r)
Sir Landeval (DIMEV 5002, the only manuscript copy)
Rubric: \Landvall/
Incipit: Sothly by Arthurys day
Explicit: Bryng vs to his blysse on high
Final rubric: Amen. Explicit.
43. (fols. 128v-140r)
The Wedding of Sir Gawain and Dame Ragnelle (DIMEV 3130, only this manuscript)
Rubric: \The weddynge of sir gawen & dame Ragnell/
Incipit: Leythe and listenyth the lif of a lord riche
Explicit: For paynes he hath strong
Final rubric: Here endyth the weddyng of syr gawen and dame Ragnell for helpyng of kyng Arthoure

Lacking about 70 lines (after l. 628 in Sir Gawain: Eleven Romances and Tales, ed. Thomas Hahn (1995)) due to the loss of a leaf before fol. 137.

A largely illegible note at the bottom of fol. 140r: see Griffiths 386 and Manly-Rickert I.474.

(fol. 140v)

See Provenance.

Physical Description

Form: codex
Support: Paper, folded in folio. Watermark: hand/glove with six-petalled flower/star and three-part cuff, between chainlines, type Piccard Online 155939-41 etc., used in the first half of the 16th century
Dimensions (leaf): 285 × 215 mm.


6(8) (fols. 90-7), 7(10) (fols. 98-107), 8(16) (fols. 108-123), 9(14) (fols. 124-129, 129*-136), 10(6-1) (fols. 137-140, wanting 1 before fol. 137, with loss of text, and 6 after fol. 140, probably blank)


1 col., c. 28-34 lines; no ruling, paper folded to provide vertical guidelines; written space 220-35 × 135 mm.


Apparently two scribes (A, fols. 90r-124v, 126r-128r6; B, fol. 125r-v, 128r7-140r); predominantly secretary forms.


Occasional coloured red initials.

Some rubrics in red.

Plain initials with modest cadels, fol. 128v.


Origin: 16th century, first half ; England


fol. 90r, various scribbles and pen-trials, and part of a release from 'John Hew' to 'Thomas John' of a property in Sussex; fol. 140v, note of items (including mazers, spoons) delivered 'to the ⟨good wiff⟩ Callwarly'; possibly (Griffiths, p. 386) the London goldsmith William Callawey and his wife Alice.

MS. Rawl. C. 86 - Part IV (fols. 178-189)


Language(s): Middle English

44. (fols. 178r-186r)
The Expedition of Henry V into France (DIMEV 1591)
Incipit: God That all this world gane make
Explicit: Blest be god yn trenyte

Rhyme-brackets to fol. 182v.

Fol. 186v blank except for pen-trials.

45. (fols. 187r-189r)
Verses on the kings of England (DIMEV 727)
Incipit: The myghte William Duke of Normandy
Explicit: & is buried att Wyndesore
Colophon: Explicit per Johannem Reve free | Explicet per Johannem Reve

With genealogical roundels in the margins, outlined in red.

46. (fol. 189r)
Note on the claim of Edward III to the throne of France
Rubric: The tytle of Fraunce

Fol. 189v blank except for pen-trials.

Physical Description

Form: codex
Support: Paper, folded in folio. Watermarks, (fols. 178-80) hand/glove with six-petalled flower and unidentifiable device; (fols. 181, 185), hand/glove with five-petalled flower and unidentifiable device; (fol. 183), hand/glove with five-petalled flower and noose/flourish, somewhat resembling Piccard 17.5.1514 (Piccard Online 155779) (Windsor, 1522)
Dimensions (leaf): 285 × 213 mm.




1 col., c. 36 lines; no ruling (paper folded for a vertical guide); written space c. 240 × 135 mm.


Two hands:

Fols. 178r-184r: mostly anglicana, some secretary forms.

Fols. 184v-186r (?John Reve), secretary.


2-line plain red initial, fol. 178r; otherwise none.


Origin: 15th century, late (after 1484) or 16th century, first half ; England

Additional Information

Record Sources

Description by Matthew Holford and Julia King, May 2022. Previously described in the Quarto Catalogue (W. D. Macray, Catalogi codicum manuscriptorum Bibliothecæ Bodleianæ...viri munificentissimi Ricardi Rawlinson, J.C.D., codicum...complectens, Quarto Catalogues V, 5 fascicles, 1862–1900). Decoration, localization and date follow Pächt and Alexander (1973).

Digital Images

Digital Bodleian (full digital facsimile)
Digital Bodleian (3 images from 35mm slides)


    Online resources:

    Select printed descriptions:

    S. Ogilvie-Thomson, The index of Middle English prose. Handlist XXIII, The Rawlinson Collection, Bodleian Library, Oxford (2017)
    J. J. Griffiths, 'A Re-exanimation of Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS. Rawlinson C. 86', Archiv 219/134/2 (1983), 381-8
    G. Guddat-Figge, Catalogue of Manuscripts containing Middle English Romances (1976), 288-292
    Pächt and Alexander iii. 1027, pl. XCVII
    J. M. Manly and E. Rickert, The Text of the Canterbury Tales (1940) I. 472-5

Last Substantive Revision

2022-05: Description fully revised for publication on Digital Bodleian.