Christ Church MS. 107
Vulgate Bible; England, s. xiiiin.
With modest deviations from Ker’s standard contents and order (MMBL, 1:96-97); it lacks the Prayer of Manasses (fol. 156ra) but includes that of Solomon (fol. 248vab). The prologues frequently deviate from Ker’s standard set. Six are totally absent (RB 327 to II Chronicles, RB 511 to Joel, RB 513 to Amos, RB 547 and 553 to I Maccabees, and RB 580 to Matthew), while another three were originally omitted but have been added by a contemporary hand in the lower margins (Galatians, Ephesians and Philemon). This hand also adds prologues to some of the Catholic Epistles which are not usually so equipped. In addition, there are several substitutions for the usual prologues (Job, Malachi, Acts and Apocalypse), and a relatively large number of extra prologues (Daniel, several of the Minor Prophets, Luke, and I Corinthians).
The order is therefore as follows: [fol. 1ra- 3va] RB 284 followed by 285 with title and five-line initial, [fol. 3va-20ra] Genesis, [fol. 20ra-34ra] Exodus, [fol. 34ra-43va] Leviticus, [fol. 43va-57rb] Numbers, [fol. 57rb-69va] Deuteronomy, followed by four blank lines and a rubricated incipit, [fol. 69vb-70ra] RB 311, [fol. 70ra-78rb] Joshua, ending with three lines of line-filling and incipit at bottom of column, [fol. 78va-87ra] Judges, [fol. 87ra-88rb] Ruth, [fol. 88rb-vb] RB 323, followed by five blank lines and a rubricated incipit, [fol. 89ra-101ra] I Kings, with rest of column blank after incipit for following book, [fol. 101rb-111ra] II Kings, [fol. 111rb-123ra] III Kings, with rest of column blank after incipit for following book, [fol. 123rb-133vb], [fol. 134ra-rb] RB 328, [fol. 134rb-144ra] I Chronicles, [fol. 144ra-156ra] II Chronicles (without prologue), [fol. 156rb-va] RB 330 with rest of column blank after incipit for following book, [fol. 156vb-160rb] I Ezra, [fol. 160rb-165ra] Nehemiah (II Ezra, with chapter numbering continuing from I Ezra), [fol. 165rb-170va] III Ezra, [fol. 170va] RB 332, [fol. 170va-174ra] Tobit, [fol. 174ra] RB 335, [fol. 174ra-178vb] Judith, [fol. 178vb-179ra] RB 341 and 343 as one block of text, [fol. 179ra-183va] Esther, [fol. 183va-184ra] RB 344, 349 and 353, [fol. 184rb-192vb], Job [fol. 192vb-193rb] RB 1665 and 430, [fol. 193rb-217vb] Psalms; [fol. 218ra] RB 457, with rest of page blank except for rubricated incipit at last line, [fol. 218va-225va] Proverbs, ending with lower half of column blank after incipit to following work, [fol. 225vb] RB 462, [fol. 225vb-228rb] Ecclesiastes, with lower half of column blank except for incipit to following work at last lines, [fol. 228va-229vb] Song of Songs, [fol. 229vb] RB 468 preceded by extra sentence (cf our MS. 105), [fol. 229vb-234vb] Wisdom, [fol. 235ra-248vb] Ecclesiasticus, [fol. 248vb-249ra] RB 482, [fol. 249ra-264ra] Isaiah, [fol. 264ra-rb] RB 487, [fol. 264rb-285ra] Jeremiah with Lamentations immediately following (fol. 283rb) as a separate book but with no illuminated initial, [fol. 285ra] RB 491, [fol. 285ra-287ra] Baruch, [fol. 287rb] RB 492, [fol. 287rb-303vb] Ezekiel, [fol. 303vb-304rb] RB 494 and 495, [fol. 304rb-311ra] Daniel, [fol. 311ra-rb] RB 500 and 507, [fol. 311rb-313va] Hosea, [fol. 313va] RB 510 only, [fol. 313va-314va] Joel [fol. 314va] RB 515 and 512, [fol. 314va-316rb] Amos, [fol. 316rb-va] RB 519, 517 and 516, [fol. 316va-vb] Obadiah, [fol. 316vb] RB 524 and 521, [fol. 317ra-va] Jonah, [fol. 317va] RB 526 and 525, [fol. 317va-318vb] Micah, [fol. 318vb-319ra] RB 528 and 527, [fol. 319ra-vb] Nahum, [fol. 319vb-320rb] RB 531 and 530, [fol. 320rb-321ra] Habakkuk, [fol. 321ra-rb] RB 534 and 532, [fol. 321rb-vb] Zephaniah, [fol. 321vb-321bisra] RB 538 (starting at ‘Moriente dario’; cf. our MS 105) and 535, [fol. 321bisra-va] Haggai, [fol. 321bisva-322ra] RB 539, 540 and 3369, [fol. 322ra-324vb] Zechariah, [fol. 324vb-325ra] RB 3371 (jerome), 545, and 544, [fol. 325ra-vb] Malachi [fol. 325vb] RB 551, [fol. 325vb-335vb] I Maccabees, [fol. 335vb-342vb] II Maccabees, [fol. 342vb-343ra] RB 590, [fol. 343ra-353ra] Matthew, [fol. 353ra-rb] RB 607, [fol. 353rb-359va] Mark, [fol. 359va-vb] RB 1280 and 620, [fol. 359vb-370rb] Luke, [fol. 370rb] RB 624, [fol. 370va-378ra] John, [fol. 378ra] RB 677, [fol. 378ra-381vb] Romans, [fol. 382ra-rb] RB 689 and 685, [fol. 382rb-386ra] I Corinthians, [fol. 386ra] RB 699, [fol. 386ra-388va] II Corinthians, [fol. 388va, bottom margin] RB 707, [fol. 388va-389vb] Galatians, [fol. 389vb, bottom margin] RB 715, [fol. 389vb-391ra] Ephesians, [fol. 391ra, bottom margin] RB 728, [fol. 391ra-vb] Philippians, [fol. 391vb] RB 736, [fol. 392ra-vb] Colossians, [fol. 392vb] RB 747, [fol. 392vb-393va] I Thessalonians, [fol. 393va] RB 752 (opening ‘Thessalonicensibus secundam scripsit...’), [fol. 393va-394ra] II Thessalonians, [fol. 394ra] RB 765, [fol. 394ra-395ra] I Timothy, [fol. 395ra] RB 772, [fol. 395ra-vb] II Timothy, [fol. 395vb] RB 780, [fol. 395vb-396rb] Titus, [fol. 396rb] RB 783, [fol. 396rb-va] Philemon, [fol. 396va] RB 793, [fol. 396va-399va] Hebrews, [fol. 399va] RB 7063 (part of), [fol. 399va-409vb] Acts, [fol. 409vb-410ra] RB 809, [fol. 410ra-411ra] James, [fol. 411ra, bottom margin] RB 816, [fol. 411ra-412ra] I Peter, [fol. 412ra-vb] II Peter, [fol. 412vb] RB 822, [fol. 412vb-413vb] I John, [fol. 413va, bottom margin with signe de renvoi] RB 823, [fol. 413vb] II John, [fol. 413vb, bottom margin with signe de renvoi] RB 824, [fol. 413vb-414ra] III John, [fol. 414ra, bottom margin] RB 825, [fol. 414ra-rb] Jude, [fol. 414rb] RB 829, [fol. 414rb-419rb] Apocalypse.
Fols 419v-21v were originally blank; fol. 419v now has ‘In isto volumine continentur’, a numbered listing of 73 biblical books in text order (anglicana, s. xiv med.); corresponding numbers have been inserted in upper corners of rectos as a finding device. The remaining leaves were covered with notes in brown crayon, now faded.
Sharpe no. 1669 [624-30 at 628], here (as in our MS 105) attributed to Remigius of Auxerre. It is provided in the long version, RB 7709, ed. Bedae Opera (Cologne, 1688), 3:371-480. It is presented in triple columns.
The table of lections, readings for the church year.
On added leaves; begins in gothic textura semiquadrata, s. xiii (the single leaf fol. 457rv); then completed s. xv, beginning in gothic textura quadrata, but becoming mixed anglicana/secretary in fol. 458ra, the last entries perhaps made by Robert Wrangwys (on whom, see provenance).
In double columns, each column 153 × 47 mm. , with 10 mm between columns, with number of lines varying: consistently 50 in the first nine quires, it then oscillates, ranging between 47 (quire xvi) and 52 (quire xix).
Very occasional signs of full pricking; bounded and ruled in dry point on the hair side, which has then been overlaid in lead.
The ruling is usually formed with the top three lines and the bottom line of the text block extending into the margins, as do the further horizontal lines – one triple set bounding lines 25 and 26, a double set 40mm below last line and a single one 15mm above top line on which sit the running headers – while all vertical lines, including both a set of two, 4mm apart, the inner line 28mm from the outer edge of the writing area, and another running down the middle of the central reservation, extend the full length of the page.
The size of the written space, though, is variable, as is the number of lines per column: Written above top line in gothic textura semiquadrata.
Punctuation by point, punctus interrogativus, and occasional punctus elevatus.
Headings in red. At the openings of the chapters, alternate one-line red and blue lombards, unflourished, with the chapter number in the margin in alternate red and blue lombards, prefaced by a red or blue paraph in alternation with the lombard at the chapter opening. Running titles for books in alternate red and blue lombards, underlined in red or blue (alternating across the opening).
At the openings of the books, large painted capitals, often with bar borders the length of the column and with painted tabs at the ends. Many are simply floral, or include animal forms (winged monsters [eg fol. 179ra, 370va], fish [eg fol. 343ra], etc.), but several are historiated initials, according to AT, probably retouched:
Fol. 1ra (the prologue): an unfilled space (now with a blue majuscule ‘F’), probably intended to house an image of Jerome as author
Fol. 3va (Genesis), partly cut away, with seven roundels and the top of an eighth remaining, depicting the Creation
Fol. 43va (Numbers): Miriam, with her leprosy, and the horned Moses
Fol. 57rb (Deuteronomy): the horned Moses addressing the Hebrews
Fol. 78va (Judges): an enthroned judge
Fol. 89ra (I Kings): the judgement of Solomon
Fol. 101rb (II Kings): a mounted armoured knight
Fol. 111rb (III Kings): Solomon, enthroned with a book and heeding the Lord’s wisdom (an implement held to his ear)
Fol. 134rb (I Chronicles): a long-haired man blessing two younger ones with crossed hands (thus Jacob blessing Manasseh and Ephraim)
Fol. 144ra (II Chronicles): an angel lecturing a king
Fol. 165rb (III Ezra): above two dogs fighting, below a man killing a birdlike monster with a spear (perhaps alluding to the Messiah destroying the eagle, IV Ezra 11-12)
Fol. 170va (Tobit): Tobias asleep, with the swallow
Fol. 193rb (Psalms): Jesus blessing seated above the crowned David harping
Fol. 199ra (Ps. 38): David as prophet, unrolling a phylactery
Fol. 201ra (Ps. 52): the ‘insipiens’
Fol. 203rb (Ps. 68): two winged monsters
Fol. 212va (Ps. 109): the enthroned Christ blessing
Fol. 249ra (Isaiah): Jesus appearing to the sleeping Isaiah with a scroll reading ‘egredietur’, in reference to Isaiah 11:1 ‘Et egredietur virga de radice Iesse’
Fol. 264rb (Jeremiah): the prophet, tonsured, pointing to a book he holds in his left hand
Fol. 287rb (Ezechiel): the hand of God reaches down to Ezechiel half submerged in the river populated by fish (alluding to Ezechiel 47:5)
Fol. 304rb (Daniel): Daniel in the lions’ den
Fol. 313va (Joel): seated and nimbed Joel holding a book in his left hand
Fol. 317ra (Jonah): Jonah falling from a ship into the mouth of the whale in the sea
Fol. 369vb (Luke): John the Baptist, inspired by an angel, lecturing Herod
Fol. 378ra (Romans): seated Paul reading
Fol. 386ra (II Corinthians): Paul holding his sword and book
Fol. 389vb (Ephesians): Paul holding a sword as a cross
Fol. 392vb (I Thessalonians): Paul preaching
Fol. 394ra (I Timothy): Paul holding a sword and sceptre
Fol. 395vb (Titus): Paul seated preaching
Fol. 399va (Acts): the gathered apostles above a seated Luke with his book
Fol. 411ra (I Peter): Peter with his keys in his right hand and a book in his left
Fol. 414va (Apocalypse): nimbed John, book in right hand, preaching to a dog on its hind legs, tail curled between its legs
See AT no. 184 (20), dating s. xiii2/4.
Dirty white (but some signs on rear turn-ins of red tint) leather over wooden boards (thicker at centre than edge but not shaped at the edge), s. xiv. Sewn on six thongs, taken straight into the board as depicted by Pollard, fig. 4 (57). On the upper board, recessed slots to hold straps, their bases, each held down by two tacks, present; staple-like metal clasps set into the leading edge of the lower board. Nail stubs from a chain staple in Watson’s position 7, probably dating from after its arrival in the collection (see Appendix I). Pastedowns old parchment, a ChCh bookplate on the front pastedown. At the front, conjoint with the pastedown a single medieval parchment flyleaf (both it and the final text leaf apparently raised pastedowns from an earlier binding). When Kitchin examined the manuscript, he saw two leaves at the front, containing ‘fragmentum sermonis gallice scripti’ (46); they were removed at the start of the twentieth century to the ‘Book of Orts’, our MS 378 (no. 28. Flyleaf text: Fol. i: a table of equivalents in pounds for various numbers of ‘centum’, ie 2s 4d. (anglicana, s. xv)
Provenance and Acquisition
There are signs of use from the volume’s earliest days: it might be the person who writes the catchwords who also notes in plummet at the foot of the folio at the start of some books the name of the commentator to be consulted (fol. 34: ‘Expositor huius libri Esichius’; fol. 43v: ‘Expositor huius libri Origenes’ etc), perhaps suggesting the reader’s access to those works; it may also be this early annotator who adds some marginalia (eg fol. 134, 184). Another reader of similar date adds notes in brown ink (fol. 34v, 35v).
The first indication of the book’s ownership comes from a couple of centuries after production: ‘Biblia magistri Roberti Wrangwys quam emit a Iohanne mowre pro xl s. Anno domini MoCCCColxo2o’ (fol. 459, below last line of added text 3; the transcription by Kitchin (46) is in error). Wrangwys was at Queen’s College 1461-83, after a BA in 1456; he eventually was a DTh in 1477/8 and rector of various Yorkshire churches until his death in 1517 (BRUO, 2093). On John More, a Catte Street stationer, and his service to the University 1439 x 1472, see M. B. Parkes at HUO, 2:419-20 (now reprinted in Pages from the Past (Aldershot, 2012), as ch. XIV), and [Bodleian Library exhibition catalogue], Duke Humfrey’s Library and the Divinity School (Oxford, 1988), no. 93, 105, 109 and 110.
The book remained in Oxford in the mid-sixteenth century; below the Wrangwys inscription are two erased notes of ownership, followed by a further boxed ownership inscription: ‘Radulphi Welchei 1553.12’ (cancelled). He received an Oxford BA in January 1555/6, but his college is unknown (AO, 1594). Also: ‘liber Thomæ Beneti 1553 liber Thomæ Atkynsoni 1553’ (fol. iv, beneath what may be an old shelfmark ‘l⟨....⟩ x⟨iij⟩’). Bennett and Atkinson were presumably at Lincoln College together. The first received a BA and MA, the latter in 1553/4; the second was a fellow of the College and MA in 1554 (AO, 107 and 42, respectively). It may be Bennett who adds a concordance of Gospel passages, in an italic script at fol. 343r-v.
There is no indication, however, of the book’s route to Christ Church, though the evidence of the chain staple, which is in the same position and very similar in size to that on MS 157, given c. 1632, would suggest that it may have arrived in the early 1630s (see Appendix I). Certainly, it was in the collection by 1676, when it was included in the Archives catalogue; the relevant shelfmark ‘A.⟨5⟩’(cancelled) appears at the front pastedown of the manuscript (see Appendix I), as does the New Library ‘G.6’ (see Appendix IV).
For enquiries relating to this manuscript please contact Christ Church Library.